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APES Ch. 5 Vocab

Evolution of Biodiversity - AP Environmental Science, Chapter 5

Ecosystem diversity The variety of ecosystems within a given region
Species diversity The variety of species in a given ecosystem
Genetic diversity The variety of genes within a given species
Species richness The number of species in a given area
Species evenness A measure of whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or includes similar numbers of different species
Genes Physical locations on chromosomes that code for specific traits
Genotype The complete set of genes in an individual
Phenotype The set of traits expressed as a result of an individual's genotype
Microevolution Evolution below the species level
Macroevolution Evolution that gives rise to a new species or genera, family, class, or phyla
Mutation A process that creates genetic diversity, involves a random change in the genetic code
Recombination A process that creates genetic diversity, occurs as chromosomes are duplicated during reproductive cell division and a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
Geographic isolation A cause of macroevolution, occurs after physical separation of individuals of the same species
Reproductive isolation A cause of macroevolution, results when two populations (within a species) evolving separately so they can no longer breed and produce viable offspring
Allopatric speciation When a new species is created by the presence of geographic or reproductive isolation (the most common way in which evolution generates a new species)
Sympatric speciation The evolution of one species into two species in the absence of geographic isolation. Usually occurs through polyploidy (an increase in the number of sets of chromosomes beyond the normal two sets) - polypoloid organisms cannot interbreed with diploid
Fundamental niche The ideal conditions for a species
Realized niche The range of biotic and abiotic conditions under which a species lives, determines species distribution
Range of tolerance The range of abiotic conditions a species can tolerate
Niche generalist A species that lives under a wide range of conditions (ex: most insects)
Niche specialst A species that only lives in specific habitats (ex: monarch butterflies need specific plants to eat and reproduce)
Mass extinction When a large number of species go extinct over a relatively short period of time. There have been five, and scientists feel as if we are headed into a sixth one caused by humans and habitat destruction.
Created by: emilyjane1221