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Fluids & Electrolyte

Fluids and Electrolytes Quiz over powerpoint ICCC

QuestionAnswer
What is a Solute? Substance Dissolved
What is Solvent? Solution in which solute is dissolved
What does Percentages mean? Grams of drug per 100 mL of fluid
What is 1st function of body Fluids? 1. Provides a medium for transporting nutrients to cells, wastes from cells and for transporting substances such as hormones, enzymes, and blood cells.
What is 2nd Function of body fluids? Facilitates cellular metabolism and chemical functioning within the cell
What is 3rd function of body fluids? acts as a solvent for electrolytes and non-electrolytes
What is 4th function of body fluids? Helps maintain normal body temperature
What is 5th function of body fluids? Facilitates digestion and promotes elimination
What is 6th function of body fluids? Acts as a tissue lubricant
What is the most important nutrient of life? water
5) What are the Locations of Body Fluids? Intracellular fluid- ICF and Extracellular fluid- ECF
What is intracellular Fluid? The fluid within the cell. Makes up about 40% of an adult body weight or 70% of total weight
What is Extracellular fluid? All the fluid outside the cells Makes up 20% of an adult body weight or 30% total body water.
What is included in extracellular fluid? Intravascular and interstitial fluids
What is Intravascular fluid or plasma? liquid constituent of blood
What is interstitial fluid? The fluid that surrounds tissue cells and includes lymph
What is the total body weight in healthy person? 50-60% of water Depend on factors such as age, body mass and sex
Infant has more body fluid and ECF then whom? Adult
Because ECF(extracellular fluid) easily lost from the body than ICF(Intracellular Fluid), who is more prone to fluid volume deficits than adults? Infants
What does the total amount of water differs by? Sex and person's amount of fat cells
What does fat cells contain? Little water
What is lean tissue rich in? Water
The more obese the person is, the_________ the percentage of total body water compared with body weight. smaller
Who tend to have more body fat then males, thus they have less body fluid than males? Females
What are kinds of electrolytes? Ion, Electrolyte, Cation, Anion
What is Ion? An atom or molecule carrying an electrical charge
What is Electrolyte? Substances capable of breaking into electricity charged ions when dissolved in a solution
What is Cation? Positive charged ion
What is Anion? Negative charged ion
These charges are the basis of what? Chemical interactions in the body necessary for metabolism and other functions.
How are electrolytes measured? mEq (miliequivalent)
What is mEq (miliequivant)? Unit of measure for electrolytes
What does mEq describe? Chemical activity of electrolytes
Electrolytes should be in normal balance in the body. When they are not, the person is in what sate of risk? Alteration in health
What are functions of electrolytes? Regulate water distribution Regulate acid-base balance Maintain a balance degree of neuromuscular excitability
What is Sodium (Na+)? Chief electrolyte of extracellular fluid
Where does Sodium move? Moves easily between intravascular and interstitial spaces Moves across cell membrane
What are functions of Sodium? Controls and regulates volume of body fluids Maintains water balance in body Primarily regulator of ECF volume Influences ICF volume Participates in nerve impulses Essential in the sodium-potassium pump
What is normal range of Sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
What are foods containing Sodium? Bacon, ham, sausage, Ketchup, mustard, relish, processes cheese, canned vegetables, bread, cereal, salted snack foods
What is Sodium and Potassium pump? During neuromuscular function, sodium moves into the cell and potassium diffuses out of the cell. Returned to original place with the aid of the energy source ATP
During the Sodium and Potassium pump, Sodium and Potassium remains where in relation to the cell? Sodium outside cell and Potassium inside the cell.
What is Potassium (K+)? Major cation of intracellular fluid. Chief regulator of cellular enzyme activity and cellular water content
What are functions of Potassium? Transmission of electrical impulses Protein and CHP metabolism; cellular building Assists in regulation of acid base balance by exchange with H+
What are sources of Potassium? Bananas, peaches, kiwi, figs, dates, apricots, oranges, prunes, melons, raisins, broccoli, potatoes, meat and dairy products
What are losses of Potassium? Excreted by kidneys Kidneys have no effective method of conserving potassium GI secretions contain large quantities of potassium, perspiration and saliva contain potassium
What is normal range for Potassium? 3.5-5 mEq/L
What is Chloride (Cl-)? Chief extracellular anion
Where is Chloride found? Blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph
What are the functions of Chloride? Acts with potassium to maintain osmotic pressure of the blood Plays role in body's acid-base balance Important buffering action when oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in RBCs Essential for production of HCI acid in gastric juices
What are sources of Chloride? High in sodium, dairy products and meat
What is normal range for Chloride? 95-105 mEq
Chloride is normally paired with NA+ and is excreted and conserved with Na+ by what organ? Kidneys
Chloride deficits leads to what kind of deficits? Vice versa K+ Potassium
What are non-Electrolytes? Glucose and Urea
What is Bicarbonate? Anion and Major chemical base buffer in body's primary buffer system
What are functions of Bicarbonate? Essential for acid base balance Part of buffer system
What two electrolytes constitute the body's primary buffer system? Bicarbonate and Carbonic acid
What is regulation of Bicarbonate? Levels are regulated by kidneys Available as result of carbon dioxide formation during metabolism
What is normal range for Bicarbonate? 22-26 mEq
What takes nourishment to each body cell and receives of materials to and from intracellular compartments? Extracellular fluid
What are the most common routes for transportation of materials to and from intracellular compartments? Osmosis Diffusion Active Transport Filtration
What is Osmosis? Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from and area of lower concentration to higher concentration
What is an example of Osmosis? Absorption of water by the small intestine or kidney
What kind of walls for cells have? Semipermeable walls So water can be transported through the wall
How are body fluids transported? Through cell membrane through osmosis. Move from less solute concentration to higher solute concentration until equilibrium is established
What is Diffusion? Solutes to move freely from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established.
What is example of Diffusion( Coasting downhill)? Oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged in the lung's alveoli and capillaries occurs by diffusion
What molecules are in constant motion? Solid move very slow Liquid molecules move faster Gas moves even faster then liquid
What is active transport (Pumping up the Hill)? Process that requires energy (ATP) for the movement of substances through a cell membrane from an area of lesser concentration to area of higher concentration.
What is example of Active Transport? Formation of tissue fluid; the first step in the formation of urine
Where is Filtration pressure positive at? arterioles
What do the Arterioles do? Helps to force or filter fluids into interstitial spaces
Where is Filtration pressure negative at? Venules
What do Venules do? Help force or filter fluids into the venules
Filtration is also involved in what? Proper functioning of glomeruli of the kidneys
What is Isotonic? Having same concentration of dissolved materials as the solution used as a comparison No pulling power
Isotonic remains where? intravascular compartment
What is Isotonic saline? 0.9% NaCl
What is normal Saline made of? Salt and water
What is hypotonic? Has less solute than isotonic solutions
What kind of water is never given in IV? Distilled
What is 1/2 strength of normal saline? 0.45% saline
If hypotonic solution is given to a dehydrated patient, who has lost intracellular fluid, the fluid will go where? Into the cell causing the cell to swell and possibly burst
What is Hypertonic? Has higher concentration of solutes 10% dextrose in water- replace electrolytes (D10W)
If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution what will happen? Shrink because fluid goes out of cell into the bloodstream and other ECF spaces
In a healthy adult, the fluid balance should be? Equal to output
What are fluid sources? Ingested liquids Food Metabolism
What is ingested liquids? This source makes up the largest amount of water taken in the by the body
Fluid intake is regulated by the? Thirst mechanism, located in hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is stimulated by? Intracellular dehydration and decreased blood volume
What is the second largest source of water for the body? Water in food
What are foods with water in them? Fruit(high) cereals and dried (low)
The amount of water ingested depends on? The diet
What is water from Metabolic Oxidation? The end product of oxidation that occurs during the metabolism of food substances
Person who diet is high in fat has a proportionally greater amount of water resulting from metabolic processes than? person who diet is high in protein
What are fluid losses? Sensible and Insensible
What is Sensible loss? Through kidneys are urine, through intestinal tract as feces, through skin as perspiration
What is Insensible? Imperceptible water loss. Invisible water loss through the skin through evaporation, from lungs with moistened exhaled breaths
What is fluid imbalances? When body's compensatory mechanisms are unable to maintain a homeostatic state
Fluid imbalances involve either? a volume or distribution of water or electrolytes
What is fluid Volume Deficit? Caused by deficiency of water and electrolytes in the ECF (hypovolemia)
What is dehydration? Decreased volume of water
What is Hydration? Normal water volume in the body
What is Fluid volume Excess? Excessive retention of water and sodium in the ECF (hypervolemia)
What is Edema? The excessive ECF may accumulate in tissue spaces
Where can Edema be observed? Around eyes, fingers, ankles, sacral space, in or around body organs
How many compartments of fluid? 3
What is the 1st compartment of fluid? normal distribution
What is the 2nd Compartment of fluid? excess accumulation of interstitial fluid which results in edema
What is the 3rd Compartment of fluid? Shift of fluid into the interstitial space and remains
What are electrolyte imbalances? Hyponatremia, Hyperatremia, Hypokalemia, and Hyperkalemia
What is Hyponatremia? Sodium deficit in ECF
What is Hyperatremia? A surplus of sodium in ECF that can result from excess water loss or an overall excess of sodium. Fluid moves from the cells, leaving them without sufficient fluid
What is Hypokalemia? Potassium deficit in ECF When ECF potassium level falls, potassium moves from the cell creating an Intracellular potassium deficiency
What are symptoms of Hypokalemia? leg cramps and muscle weakness
What is Hyperkalemia? Excess of potassium in ECF The transmission of stimuli through heart muscle is slowed or prevented, and cardiac arrest occurs if hyperkalemia is not corrected.
What is acid base balance? The unit of measure used to describe acid base balance is pH
What is normal pH? 7.35-7.45
Why does the body fluids must maintain an acid-base balance? To sustain health and life.
How is acidity or alkalinity of solutions determined? The concentration of hydrogen ions
What is the unit of measure to describe acid-base balance? pH
What is pH? Expression of hydrogen ion concentration and he resulting acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
What happens if a person's pH exceeds the normal range in either direction? Will develop signs and symptoms of illness, if goes untreated= death
What is acidosis? Condition characterized by an excess of hydrogen ions in ECF pH below 7.35
What is acid? substance containing hydrogen ion that can be released when necessary
What is alkaline or base? substance that can accept or trap hydrogen ion
What is alkalosis? occurs when there is a lack of hydrogen ion and the pH exceeds 7.45
How is normal pH range maintained? Buffer system Respiratory mechanisms Renal mechanisms
How is the narrow range achieved? Through 3 major homeostatic regulators of hydrogen ions
What is buffer? Substance that prevents body fluid from becoming over acidic or alkaline. They act like a base and bind or soak up free hydrogen ions or act like an acid and release hydrogen ions when too few are present in solution Attempts to bring body fluid as close
Created by: Renia