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7Sci_Cells Vocab

Cells Vocabulary

Homeostasis The maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
Hypothermia the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low
Stimulus Anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism
Metabolism The sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
Reproduction the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents"
Single-Celled organism Made up of only one cell
Microscopic so small as to be visible only with a microscope
Flagellum a slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa to swim
Cilia minute hairlike organelles
Prokaryotic a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
Eukaryotic an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus
Photosynthesis When green organisms convert the energy in sunlight to energy stored in food
Respiration a process in living organisms involving the production of energy, typically with the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances
Excretion the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter
Chlorophyll a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis
Cytoplasmic streaming the liquid component of the cytoplasm and organelles around large fungal and plant cells through the mediation of actin
Pseudopod a temporary protrusion of the protoplasm usually serving as an organ of locomotion
Protist the highest scientific classification of a group of one-celled organisms
Cell wall The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi
Cell The smallest unit that can perform all life processes
Cell membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell
Nucleus a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells containing the genetic material.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
Golgi body cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
Vesicles a fluid- or air-filled cavity or sac
Vacuoles a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur
Ribosome a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells
Lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
DNA a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
Proteins Large molecules that are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body
Lipids any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Microscope an optical instrument used for viewing very small objects, such as mineral samples or animal or plant cells, typically magnified several hundred times
Chloroplast in green plant cells, a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Tissue any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products
Organ a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans
Organisms an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
Ecosystem a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
Multicellular having or consisting of many cells
Asexual reproduction Reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring identical to itself
Sexual reproduction Reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offspring that share traits from both parents
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
Fertilization the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
Sperm the male impregnating fluid
Egg a sex cell produced by a female
Zygote a fertilized egg
Gametes a mature male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
Metabolism The sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
Producer An organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings
Consumer An organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
Decomposer An organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes
Protein a molecule that is made up of amino acids and is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body
Carbohydrates Molecules made of sugar
Simple carbohydrates Made up of one sugar molecule. Ex. Sugar in fruit
Amino acids the building blocks of proteins
Molecule A substance made when two or more atoms combine
Compounds Molecules made of different kinds of atoms
Complex carbohydrates Made up of hundreds of sugar molecules. Ex. Potato
Nucleotides a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group
Phospholipids A lipid that contains phosphorus and is a structural component in cell membranes
Lipids A type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water. Ex. Fats
ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate A molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes
Nucleic acids Blueprints of life that have all the information needed for a cell to make proteins
ER or endoplasmic reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane
Hydrophilic Water loving
Hydrophobic Water fearing
Cellulose A complex sugar that most animals can't digest
Cytoskeleton a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase
euglena a large genus of unicellular protists, which have both plant and animal characteristics. All are motile by means of a flagellum (animal characteristic).
paramecium one of the best-known protists, often taught in school biology courses. It is a ciliate genus. Ciliates are a clade of protists which move by synchronous waves of tiny projections from their cuticle. These projections are called cilia.
volvox a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae. It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700.
ameoba a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Created by: ndmsteach