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Fundamentals test 4

LP 10, 11, & 12

QuestionAnswer
Acculturation Process of adapting to and adopting a new culture
Assimilation To become absorbed into another culture and adopt its characteristics
Biculturalism sometimes known as multiculturalism, occurs when an individual identifies equally with two or more cultures
Bilineal Kinship that extends to both the mother's and father's sides of the family.
Culture Integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups
Cultural care accommodation or negotiation Adapting or negotiating with the patient/families to achieve beneficial or satisfying health outcomes
Cultural care preservation or maintenance Retaining and/or preserving relevant care values so patients are able to maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death.
Cultural care repatterning or restructuring . Reordering, changing, or greatly modifying a patient's/family's customs for a new, different, and beneficial health care pattern
Cultural competence Process in which the health care professional continually strives to achieve the ability and availability to work effectively with individuals, families, and communities.
Cultural imposition Using one's own values and customs as an absolute guide in interpreting behaviors.
Cultural pain Feeling that a patient has after a health care worker disregards the patient's valued way of life.
Culturally congruent care Care that fits people's valued life patterns and sets of meanings generated from the people themselves. Sometimes this differs from the professionals' perspective on care.
Culture-bound syndrome Illnesses restricted to a particular culture or group because of its psychosocial characteristics.
Emic worldview Insider or native perspective
Enculturation Socialization into one's primary culture as a child .
Ethnicity Shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space, and racial characteristics.
Ethnohistory Significant historical experiences of a particular group.
Ethnocentrism Tendency to hold one's own way of life as superior to that of others.
Etic worldview Outsider's perspective
Fictive Nonblood kin; considered family in some collective cultures.
Matrilineal Kinship that is limited to only the mother's side.
Patrilineal Kinship that is limited to only the father's side.
Personalistic practitioners believe that.. an external agent, which can be human (sorcerer) or nonhuman (ghosts, evil, or deity), causes health and illness. Personalistic beliefs emphasize the importance of humans' relationships with others, both living and deceased, and with their deities
Rites of passage significant social markers of changes in a person's life
Subcultures Various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics from the dominant culture.
Transcultural nursing Distinct discipline developed by Leininger that focuses on the comparative study of cultures to understand similarities and differences among groups of people.
Is the internal sphincter voluntary or involuntary? Involuntary
Is the external sphincter voluntary or involuntary Voluntary
Weak pelvic muscles due to aging, childbirth, etc. Often will occur with sneezing, coughing, or lifting. Stress incontinence
Often occurs in younger women. Can not hold it when feeling the urge. Often caused by UTI's, high caffeine intake. Urge incontinence
Nothing to do with the urinary system. Caused by alzheimers, and it involves the person's cognitive status Functional incontinence
Needs to go fast Urgency
Painful urination Dysuria
More frequent than usual Frequency
decreased urinary output Oliguria
Wakes up to urinate Nocturia
Frequent urination Polyuria
Lack of control of when you urinate Incontinence
Blood in urine Hematuria
Not completely emptying Retention
what's left in your bladder after you urinate Residual urine
Diverts flow of urine from kidneys to abdominal surface Urinary stoma
Inflammation of the bladder cystitis
Incontinent form of diversion Ileal conduit/loop
Continent form of diversion Transueteroureterostomy
Temporary diversion. Both ureters reconnected Double ureterostomy
What is proteinuria a sign of? Kidney malfunction
Clump of dead cells. Signs of kidney problens Casts
pH of urine 4.6-8
normal protein in urine none up to 8 mg/100 ml
Glucose in urine not normal
ketones in urine not normal
Normal blood in urine up to 2 RBCs
Specific gravity 1.010-1.030
Normal WBC's in urine 0-4 per low power field
bacteria in urine Not normal
Casts in urine not normal
Urinary analgesic... relieves urinary tract discomfort, turns urine orange-red Pyridium
4 types of catheterization straight, indwelling, suprapubic, condom cath
Holding your breath and bearing down when making a bowel movement. Dangerous for.... the elderly and people with cardiac problems, abdominal surgery, and hypertension valsalva maneuver
Laxatives example miralax
Antidiarrheals. Slows down peristalsis (Immodium)
Stool softeners example Colace
Small intestine being rerouted. Stool are watery to paste like Ileostomy
Large intestine being rerouted. Stool more formed and normal Colostomy
Importance of Specimen collection Identify microorganisms'
Technique for Collection Specimen -Use clean gloves and sterile equipment - Seal containers/biohazard bag tightly
erythema Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is a result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; sunburn is an example.
aldosterone Substance released by the adrenal cortex in response to increased plasma potassium levels or as a part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism to counteract hypovolemia.
electrolyte Element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or another solvent, dissociates into ions and is able to carry an electrical current.
extracellular fluids Portion of body fluids composed of interstitial fluid and blood plasma.
filtration Process by which water and diffusible substances move together in response to fluid pressure.
active transport Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be possible.
angiotensin Substance produced by renin that causes some vasoconstriction.
anion gap Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions: determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
anions Negatively charged electrolytes.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Substance stored in the posterior pituitary gland that is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity.
arterial blood gas The oxygen and carbon dioxide content of arterial blood, measured by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status of the body.
autologous transfusion Transfusion procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a time before it is returned to the donor's circulation.
buffer Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance.
colloid osmotic pressure Pressure that tends to keep fluid in the intravascular compartment.
colloids Blood and blood components.
concentration gradient Difference between two concentrations.
crystalloids Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte therapy.
dehydration Excessive loss of water from the body tissues, accompanied by a disturbance of body electrolytes.
dyssomnias Primary sleep disorders.
fluid volume deficit (FVD) Alteration characterized by the loss of fluids and electrolytes in an isotonic fashion.
fluid volume excess (FVE) Alteration characterized by the abnormal retention of fluids and electrolytes in an isotonic fashion.
hemolysis Breakdown of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin as may result from the administration of hypotonic intravenous solutions that cause progressive swelling and rupture of the erythrocytes.
homeostasis State of relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, maintained naturally by physiological adaptive mechanisms.
hydrostatic pressure Pressure exerted by a liquid.
hypertonic Situation in which one solution has a greater concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts more osmotic pressure.
hypotonic Situation in which one solution has a smaller concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts less osmotic pressure.
infiltration . Dislodging an intravenous catheter or needle from a vein into the subcutaneous space
infusion pump Device that delivers a measured amount of fluid over a period of time.
insensible water loss Loss of fluid from the body by evaporation, such as that which normally occurs during respiration.
interstitial fluid Fluid that fills the spaces between most of the cells of the body and that provides a substantial portion of the liquid environment of the body.
intracellular fluids Liquids within the cell membrane.
intravascular fluid Blood plasma
ions Atoms or groups of atoms that have acquired an electrical charge through the gain or loss of an electron or electrons.
isotonic Situation in which two solutions have the same concentration of solute; therefore both solutions exert the same osmotic pressure.
metabolic acidosis Abnormal condition of high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate.
metabolic alkalosis Abnormal condition characterized by the significant loss of acid from the body or by increased levels of bicarbonate.
milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) Unit of measurement representing the number of grams of the specific electrolyte dissolved in a liter of plasma.
oncotic pressure Total influence of a protein on the osmotic activity of plasma water.
osmolarity Osmotic pressure of a solution expressed in osmols or milliosmols per liter of the solution.
osmols Quantity of a substance in solution in the form of molecules, ions, or both that has the same osmotic pressure as 1 mole of an ideal nonelectrolyte.
osmoreceptor Receptor that is sensitive to fluid concentration in the blood plasma and that regulates the secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
osmosis Movement of a pure solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower solute concentration to one with a higher solute concentration.
osmotic pressure Drawing power for water, which depends on the number of molecules in the solution.
respiratory acidosis Abnormal condition characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration, excess carbonic acid, and increased hydrogen ion concentration.
respiratory alkalosis Abnormal condition characterized by decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration and decreased hydrogen ion concentration.
sensible water loss Water loss that occurs though excess perspiration.
solute Substance dissolved in a solution.
solvent Any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved.
transfusion reaction Systemic response by the body to the administration of blood incompatible with that of the recipient.
vascular access devices Catheters, cannulas, or infusion ports designed for long-term, repeated access to the vascular system.
venipuncture Technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp, rigid stylet or by a needle attached to a syringe.
acidosis An increase of hydrogen ions producing a lower pH.
alkalosis A decrease of hydrogen ions producing a higher pH.
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone secreted from atrial cells of the heart in response to atrial stretching and an increase in circulating blood volume. ANP has been identified as a diuretic that causes sodium loss and inhibits the thirst mechanism
transcellular fluid Transcellular fluid is fluid separated from other fluids by a cellular barrier and consists of cerebrospinal, pleural, gastrointestinal, intraocular, peritoneal, and synovial fluids. Loss of transcellular fluid can produce fluid & electrolyte disturbance.
Phlebitis . Inflammation of a vein
Solution Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance. The molecules of each of the substances disperse homogeneously and do not change chemically. A solution may be a liquid, gas, or solid.
Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Hypovolemia Decreased circulatory blood volume resulting from extracellular fluid losses.
Cations Positively charged electrolytes
Edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
Anthropometry measurement system of the size and makeup of the body; height and weight obtained
Amino acids Building blocks that construct proteins; the end products of protein digestion
Anabolism Constructive metabolism characterized by conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter
Anorexia Condition in which ill or debilitated clients have poor appetites.
Anorexia nervosa Disease characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming obese.
Body mass index (BMI) Measurement of weight, corrected for height, which serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
Bulimia nervosa Insatiable craving for fond, often resulting in episodes of continuous eating that are followed by purging, depression, and self-deprivation.
Carbohydrate Dietary classification of food such as sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum.
Catabolism Complex metabolic process in which energy is liberated for use in work, energy, storage, or heat production by oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; carbon dioxide and water, as well as energy, are produced.
Daily values Set of dietary standards for eight nutrients and food categories.
Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) Format presenting a range of acceptable intake in place of absolute values.
Dysphagia . Difficulty swallowing
Enteral nutrition (EN) Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the client cannot ingest, chew, or swallow food but can digest and absorb nutrients.
Enzymes Proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions in organic matter
Fat-soluble vitamins Organic compounds essential for normal physiological and metabolic functioning; classified on the basis of their fat solubility.
Fatty acids Nutrients composed of chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain and a methyl group at the other.
Gluconeogenesis Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates, such as proteins or lipids.
Glycogenesis Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage.
Glycogenolysis Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water.
Hypervitaminosis Condition caused by excessive intake of a vitamin; less likely to occur with water-soluble vitamins.
Ideal body weight (IBW) Estimate of what a person should weigh.
Ketone Organic chemical compound characterized by having in its structure a carbonyl, or keto, group, =CO, attached to two alkyl groups.
Lipid Any of the free fatty acid fractions in the blood
Macromineral Minerals classified as having a daily requirement of 100 mg or more.
Malabsorption Set of symptoms resulting from disorders in the intestinal absorption of nutrients; characterized by anorexia, weight loss, bloating of the abdomen, and muscle cramps.
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) Use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition.
Metabolism . Aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms, resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other functions concerned with the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion
Minerals Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
Monosaturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids that have one carbon bond.
Nitrogen balance Relationship between the nitrogen taken into the body, usually as food, and the nitrogen excreted from the body in urine and feces. Most of the body's nitrogen is incorporated into protein.
Nutrient density Proportion of essential nutrients to the number of calories of a specific food.
Parenteral nutrition (PN) Administration of nutrition into the vascular system.
Polyunsaturated (fatty acids) Fatty acids that have two or more carbon double bonds.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) Measurement that accounts for BMR plus energy to digest meals and perform mild activity.
Saccharide Within carbohydrates, a classification of sugars.
Saturated fatty acids Fatty acids in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom.
Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides and disaccharides, found primarily in sugars.
Trace elements Minerals when less than 100 mg is needed daily; microminerals.
Triglycerides Circulate in the blood and are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
Unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acids in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond.
Vegetarianism Consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods.
Vitamins Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body. With few exceptions, vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet or dietary supplements.
Water-soluble vitamins Vitamins that cannot be stored in the body and must be provided in the daily food intake, such as vitamin C and B complex.
Dispensable amino acids Amino acids that the body synthesizes
Indispensible amino acids Amino acids that the body cannot synthesize
Kilocalorie (kcal) Measurement of heat that is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions.
Fiber Nutrient that contains cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin; sources are mainly fruits and vegetables.
Chyme Viscous, semifluid contents of the stomach present during digestion of a meal that eventually pass into the intestines.
Peristalsis Coordinated, rhythmic, serial contractions of smooth muscle that force food through the digestive tract.
Anorexia a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
Food Security The ability of individuals to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis
Intravenous fat emulsions Soybean or safflower oil based solutions that are isotonic and may be infused with amino acid and dextrose solution through a central or peripheral line
Nutrients A substance in foods that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy
Albumin half life 21 days 3.5-5 g/dl
transferrin binds and transfers iron 200-400 mg/dl
pre-albumin half life 2 days 10-40
Total iron binding capacity total amount iron that can be bound to transferrin, Hgb male-13-18 g/dl female 12-15 g/dl
Positive N+ balance intake exceeds output, required for growth states, seen in pregnancy and bodybuilding
nitrogen balance (total g protein in 24 hrs/6.25)
Negative N+ balance putting out more than taking in, seen in chronic states, wounds, anorexia, starvation
I & O Intake and OUtput, measures fluid and food intake, post on door, includes IV fluids and blood products
Drug nutrient interactions Laxative-decreased absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K and carotene)
Platelet Aggregate Inhibitor-Decreased drug absorption with food Potassium Replacement-Decreased B12, Tranquilizer-Increased appetite
Islam dietary restrictions Pork, alcohol, caffeine, Ramadan fasting sunrise to sunset for month, ritualized methods of animal slaughter required for meat ingestion
Christianity dietary restrictions Minimal or no alcohol, holy day observances may restrict meat
Hinduism All meats, no alcohol
Judaism Pork, predatory fowl, shellfish, rare meats, blood, mixing of dairy with meat, kosher preparation, 24 hour fasting on Yom Kippur, No leavened bread during passover, no cooking on Saturaday (Sabbath)
Mormon Alcohol, Tobacco, Caffeine, Limit meat
Seventh Day Adventist Pork, shellfish, alcohol, coffee, tea, vegetarian encouraged
clear liquid diet broth, bouillon, coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, clear fruit juices, gelatin, popsicles
full liquid diet Clear + dairy, refined cooked cereal, vegetable juice, pureed vegetable, all fruit juices
Pureed Clear+Full+scrambled eggs, pureed meat, pureed vegetables/fruits, mashed potatoes/gravy
Mechanical Soft Clear+full+pureed+ground/finely diced meat, flaked fish, cottage cheese, cheese, rice, potatoes, pancakes, light breads, cooked vegetables, cooked/canned fruits, bananas, soups, peanut butter
PEG and PEJ Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube
Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy Tube both are surgically implanted
Residual checks intermittent-before each meal, continuous-q4-12h. Return to stomach, If >100 cc, return to stomach, hold feed, recheck in an hour and if still > 100cc, notify MD
Culture Socially transmitted knowledge of values, beliefs, norms, & habits of a particular group which greatly impacts behavior & thought of the individuals within that culture. It evolves over time as members of this group learn to live within an environment.
Transculture It is a comparive study of cultures to understand similiaries & differences.
Ethnicity Shared identity (social & cultural heritage, a common sense of identity, a cultural group's perception of belonging together.
Race Is biologically determined, such as nasal bridges, eye shape.
Color One of the biological attributes humans possess: red & yellow, black & white.
Ritual According to Mosby, a detailed proceduree followed faithfully or regularly.
Prayer An effective coping resource, a discussion with God, a Divine Being.
Spirituality That gives life or animation to an individual, very personal.
Congruence In ideal condition of all systems, a sense of harmony.
Cogerence A sense of unity, togetherness, all the pieces fit.
Faith A relationship with a divinity that incorporates reasoning. Reasoning faith is belief in something for which there is no proof. Transcendence is an awareness of that which one connot see in ordinakry physical ways; gives perpose & meaning to life.
Hope A concept, an attitude, motivating & energizing, an entity that gives meaning & purpose.
Enculturation Socialization into ones primary culture as a child - this is what occurs within the family in which you are born &/or reared.
Acculturatioin Adapting to & adopting a new culture, taking on a new culture.
Assimilation Giving up one's ethnic identity for a more dominant culture.
Biculturalism Identification with two different cultures.
Created by: slyarrington