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General 2

Q bank: Randomly Generated 2

QuestionAnswer
Leukemia, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, chronic renal disease, and alcohol intake can all cause what disorder? Gout; needle-like crystals that are strongly negatively birefringent
HLA-A3 is associated with what disorder? primary hemochromatosis
HLA-B27 is associated with what disorders? psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Reiter syndrome (arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivitis)
HLA-DR2 and DR3 are associated with what disorder? SLE
HLA DR4 is associated with what disorders? Rheumatoid arthritis and DM type 1 (along with DR3)
Adenosine deaminase, defective IL-2 receptor, and nonsense RAG mutations are all causes of this disorder. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID); chronic diarrhea, ear infections, pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and oral candidiasis are common (note: X linked is the IL-2 form)
What arteries would likely be lacerated in a midshaft versus a surgical neck fracture of the humerus? Midshaft: brachial artery; Surgical neck: posterior circumflex artery (axillary nerve might also be injured here)
What types of amyloid are associated with heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis, medullary carcinoma, myelomas and B-cell lymphomas? Heart disease and RA: AA amyloid; Medullary carcinoma: AE; Myeloma and b-cell lymphoma: AL
What's the difference in 5HT2 and 5HT3 blocking drugs? 5HT2 blockade is the mechanism of atypical antipsychotics (clozapine); 5HT3 blockade is the mechanism of the antiemetic ondansetron
What's the difference between 5HT1A agonists and 5HT1D agonists? 5HT1A agonist is the mechanism of the anxiolytic buspirone; 5HT1D agonist is the mechanism of the migraine drug sumatriptan
Patient presents with 3 month weight loss, diarrhea, and flatulence. Biopsy reveals atrophied villi in jejunum. What is the confirmatory test? Anti-gliadin antibodies; celiac sprue
Phentolamine has what effect on systemic vascular resistance and heart rate? Alpha-adrenergic receptor; it will decrease SVR, HR will increase, however, due to baroreceptor response to drop in blood pressure
What effect will epinephrine have on SVR and heart rate in the presence of phentolamine? HR will increase; Alpha activity will be blocked by phentolamine, but beta 2 will dilate arterioles decreasing SVR (this is in contrast to the increase in SVR seen w/out phentolamine)
What effect will norepinephrine have on SVR and heart rate in the presence of phentolamine? HR will increase; alpha activity will be blocked by phentolamine so there will be neither an increase or a decrease in SVR (unlike epinephrine which has beta 2 activity and would decrease SVR)
What effect will isoproterenol have on SVR and heart rate? beta-adrenergic agonist; HR would increase and SVR would decrease due to beta 2 dilation of arterioles
What test should be performed to determine if a mother has anti-Rh IgG? Indirect coombs test (maternal serum mixed with Rh-positive RBC's); direct coombs tests whether baby's RBC's agglutinate in the presence of anti-Rh IgG
What immunoglobulins cross the placenta, IgG, IgM, or both? IgG
Patient has dry mouth and dry eyes, what autoantibodies can be excpected in this patient? Sjogren syndrome; anti-Ro (SS-A) and anti-La (SSB) antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor
Patient has calcifications on the elbow, thick hardened skin especially over the hands, and complains of numbness in the fingers. What autoantibodies can be expected in this patient? Anti-centromere antibodies; patient has CREST syndrome, other physical findings may include E- esophageal dysfunction and T- telangiectasias
Anti-smith antibody and anti-double stranded DNA antibody are associated with what syndrome? SLE
A patient has memory deficits, what region of the brain is likely injured? bilateral hippocampal gyri
Patient has difficulty with speech and verbal material. What area of the brain is likely dmaged? Left hemisphere
Patient is socially inappropriate and incapable of planning things out. What is the area of the brain that is likely injured? frontal lobes
How do you calculate flow? (change in pressure)/resistance
Terbutaline and Clonidine would have what effect on insulin secretion? Terbutaline, a beta-2 agonist would stimulate secretion of insulin; Clonidine, an alpha-2 agonist would inhibit insulin secretion
What monobactam would you administer to patient with UTI showing gram negative rods and a penicillin allergy? Aztreonam, different ring structure than penicillin so no cross reactivity; has no effect on gram positive or obligate anaerobes
What is the most overlooked symptom in type 1 diabetics? Weight loss despite increased eating
Patient presents with ring shaped lesions with scaly border and central clearing. What is the appropriate treatment? Clotrimazole cream
Restrictive cardiomyopathy consisting of endomyocardial fibrosis, myocyte necrosis, and prominent eosinophilc infiltrate. Diagnosis? Loeffler endocarditis
Patient's eye looks "down and out", what cranial nerve is involved? CN III
How can you tell if a gallstone is in the common bile duct or the cystic duct? Jaundice, only occurs when stone is in the common bile duct.
What is the major source of osteoblasts that form new bone after a fracture of long bones? Periosteum
Traveller's diarrhea is commonly caused by E. coli, Shigella, and C. jejuni. What are the most commonly used agents to treat traveller's diarrhea? Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin) and TMP/SMT in children
A 20 yro man with a firm lump in his right testicle. Biopsy shows non-encapsulated, yellow, mucinous mass with endodermal sinuses. What tumor marker would be expected? alpha fetoprotein; histologic appearance is of a yolk sac tumor
This 5HT3 antagonist is used for "diarrhea predominant" IBS. Alosetron
What is the mechanism of ursodiol? dissolve cholesterol gallstones
What drug is lansoprazole similar to? omeprazole
This prokinetic agent acts as a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist. Domperidone
Created by: rahjohnson