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Unit 4 Vocabulary

Meteorology Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Ozone a colorless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odor and powerful oxidizing properties, formed from oxygen by electrical discharges or ultraviolet light.
Trophosphere the lowest region of the atmosphere
Stratosphere the layer of the earth's atmosphere above the troposphere
Mesosphere the region of the earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere
Thermosphere the region of the atmosphere above the mesosphere and below the height at which the atmosphere ceases to have the properties of a continuous medium
Conduction he process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
Convection the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity,
Radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.
Reflection the throwing back by a body or surface of light, heat, or sound without absorbing it.
Scattering the process in which electromagnetic radiation or particles are deflected or diffused.
Greenhouse effect a glass building in which plants are grown that need protection from cold weather.
Albedo the proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected by a surface, typically that of a planet or moon.
Isotherms a curve on a diagram joining points representing states or conditions of equal temperature.
Precipitation the action or process of precipitating a substance from a solution.
Latent Heat the heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, or a liquid into a vapor, without change of temperature.
Evaporation Evaporation is the process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure
Codensation water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.
Sublimation Sublimation is a chemical process where a solid turns into a gas without going through a liquid stage.
Humidity a quantity representing the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere or a gas.
Saturated holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.
Dew Point he atmospheric temperature (varying according to pressure and humidity) below which water droplets begin to condense and dew can form.
Hygrometer/Psychrometer an instrument for measuring the humidity of the air or a gas.
Weather front A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena.
Condensation nuclei small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapour condenses.
Cirrus cloud forming wispy filamentous tufted streaks (“mare's tails”) at high altitude
Cumulus a cloud forming rounded masses heaped on each other above a flat base at fairly low altitude.
Stratus cloud forming a continuous horizontal gray sheet, often with rain or snow.
Supersaturated increase the concentration of (a solution) beyond saturation point.
Air Pressure pressure exerted by air
Barometer an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially in forecasting the weather and determining altitude.
Pressure gradient is a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
Coriolis effect an apparent force that as a result of the earth's rotation deflects moving objects
Jet stream a narrow, variable band of very strong, predominantly westerly air currents encircling the globe several miles above the earth.
Cyclone a system of winds rotating inward to an area of low atmospheric pressure, with a counterclockwise (northern hemisphere) or clockwise (southern hemisphere) circulation
Anti-cyclone a weather system with high atmospheric pressure at its center, around which air slowly circulates in a clockwise (northern hemisphere) or counterclockwise (southern hemisphere) direction.
Trade winds a wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere
Westerlies a wind blowing from the west.
Polar easterlies are the dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards low-pressure areas within the Westerlies at high latitudes.
Anemometer an instrument for measuring the speed of the wind, or of any current of gas.
El Nino an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years
Air Mass body of air with horizontally uniform temperature, humidity, and pressure.
Stationary front A stationary front is a pair of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other.
Occluded front a composite front produced by occlusion.
Storm Surge a rising of the sea as a result of atmospheric pressure changes and wind associated with a storm.
Created by: DylanMcCarty22