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Bio. T5 Study Stack

Test 5: Chapters 17-20

Fertilization normally occurs.. in the upper third of the oviduct.
Oviduct contractions.. May help transport sperm.
Once sperm and egg nuclei fuse.. Fertilization is accomplished.
Zygote (fertilized egg) travels down the oviduct and eventually implants itself in the endometrium.
Embryonic Development lasts from fertilization.. to the end of the second months of gestation; at which all organ systems have formed.
During the First month.. the zygote goes through the morula stage; ball of cells.
During the Second month.. the legs, arms and digits are better formed, the head is large and all internal organs have appeared.
During these two months, the mother may experience.. nausea, breast tenderness, fatigue and other symptoms.
At the end of the first two months.. Embryonic Stage is over.
Fetal stage development extends.. from the third-ninth month.
During the third and fourth months... the body increases in size and epidermal refinements such as; eyelashes and nipples become apparent.
Bone is.. Replacing Cartilage.
During the third and fourth months it is possible to distinguish male from female.
During the fifth through seventh months... the mother can feel fetal movement and the eyelids open fully.
One Theory of aging suggests that aging has a genetic basis, cells can only divide so many times. a.) as we grow older,it may be that more cells age and die. b.) Offspring of long-lived people also tend to be long lived. c.) Some people may have genes causing the individual's to live longer.
Second Theory of aging suggests that.. a hormonal decline can affect many different organ systems. a.) The immune system no longer performs as well, which is perhaps why it is more common among the elderly.
Second Theory of aging suggests that.. b.) Aging may be due to the failure of a particular tissue type found throughout the body.
Third Theory of aging suggests that... extrinsic factors contribute to most of aging. a.) such as poor/unhealthy diet.
Skin loses elasticity... and becomes thinner with age. Resulting in sagging and wrinkling.
Fewer sweat glands result from aging.. temperature regulation becomes less efficient.
Deterioration of the cardiovascular system ... is the leading cause of death among the elderly. Also the number one cause of death.
The heart shrinks with age... and fatty deposits clog the arteries.
Proper diet and exercise... can slow down the degenerative process.
Lungs lose.. elasticity, ventilation is reduced.
Reduced blood supply to the kidneys result... in the kidneys becoming smaller and less efficient.
By the age of 50 the Kidney's lose about 1/3 of their functional ability.
Digestive tract may lose.. muscle tone, but still absorbs nutrients efficiently.
Normal age results.. in the loss of few nerve cells.
Short term memory may decline.. but overall cognitive skills remain the same.
After the age 50... slow decline in the ability to hear higher frequencies of sound and the ocular lenses become hard and do not accommodate well.
Loss of skeletal muscle mass is common... can be controlled through exercise.
Bone density... declines, can be slowed down by adequate intake of calcium and proper exercise.
Females undergo Menopause.. and are no longer reproductive.
In males, sperm production.. continues until death.
Good health habits, when started at a young age, will.. slow down the aging process. Which can contribute to a long and healthy life-span.
Humans has 23... pair of chromosomes. altogether (46).
The human life cycle involves.. two types of cell divisions; Mitosis and Meiosis.
Mitosis for normal growth and development. a.) produces two daughter cells, each with the exact same number as their parent cell. b.) used in growth and or repair.
Mitosis has five stages... Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telephases. (IPMAT)
Meiosis used only in the Gonads (sex organs); to produce gametes with "n" number of chromosomes. a.)results in the production of four daughter cells; each with "n" number of chromosomes, from one "2n" mother cells. b.) has two divisions
Human life cycle.. Two adults reproduce "n" gametes, which join to make "2n" zygotes, and the human life cycle repeats.
Chapter 18
Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle portal.
Normal cells are converted to cancer cells by the accumulation of multiple mutations.
Certain viruses promote cancer integration of viral DNA into a cell’s genome.
Individuals who inherit a mutant oncogene (cancer gene) have an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.
Duplication, rearrangements, and mutations of DNA contribute to Genome evolution.
Characteristics of Cancer Cells
Cancer cells lack differentiation... and do not contribute to function.
Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
Cancer cells do not undergo apoptosis (ap.op.to.sis) they enter the cell cycle an unlimited number of times.
Apoptosis is the death of cells that.... occurs as a normal and controlled parts of an organism’s growth and development.
Oncogenes cause an unrestrained cell cycle and prevent apoptosis.
Cancer cells form tumors and do not need growth factors to signal them to divide.
Cancer cells gradually become abnormal (carcinogenesis) is comprised initiation, promotion and progression.
Cancer cells undergo angiogenesis... the growth of new blood vessels, to support them and spread throughout the body (metastasis).
Types of Cancer Cancers are classified based on their places of origin.
Carcinomas.... epithelial tissues.
Sarcomas muscle and connective tissues.
Leukemia blood
Lymphomas lymphatic tissues
Certain body organs.... are more susceptible to cancer than others.
Causes & Prevention of Cancer Development of cancer is determined by a person’s genetic profile + expose to environmental carcinogens.
Cancers that run in families are most likely do due inheritance of mutated genes.
Retinoblastoma a rare malignant tumor of the retina, affecting young children.
Certain environmental factors are carcinogens such as UV radiation, tobacco smoke, asbestos and pollutants.
Industrial chemicals are carcinogen pesticides and herbicides.
Certain viruses cause a specific cancer such as Hepatitis B and C, human papilloma virus (HVP) and Epstein-Barr.
Treatment of Cancer Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional methods
Other Cancer Treatments include; a.) Chemotherapy involving bone marrow transplant. b.) Immunotherapy. c.)p53 (tumor suppressor) gene therapy;
One type of p53 gene therapy ensures that cancer cells go under apoptosis
p53 gene therapy is based on original mechanisms of action with potentially low toxicity
Other therapies such as inhibitory drugs for angiogenesis and metastasis which are being investigated.
Chapter 19 and 20
DNA is a cells... genetic material
A gene... is a sequence of DNA.
Biotechnology uses genetic engineering to achieve the desired end
Genetic engineering allows the insertion of a foreign gene.. into new cells, which are able to produce a new product.
When many copies of the same gene are obtained the gene is said to be cloned.
Recombinant DNA contains DNA... from 2 or more different sources.
The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) can produce millions of copies from one gene or DNA.
DNA can be subjected to DNA fingerprinting.
Matching patterns can identify... a criminal or the parent of a child.
Matching patterns can identify (Continued) This can help with diagnosis and tracing the evolution of humans and other species.
Transgenic organisms... have had a foreign gene inserted into them
Transgenic bacteria have been used to produce solutions like insulin or t-PA, promoting the health of plants, and to produce chemicals
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) can be used.... to treat some people who are having a stroke caused by a blood clot.
t-PA is given.... in a vein (intravenously or IV) and in some cases may be given directly into an artery.
Transgenic plants now produce biotechnology products like hormone clotting factors and antibiotics.
Some plants have been enhanced to resist pests and herbicides.
Xenotransplantation Scientists have begun genetically engineering pigs to serve as organ donors for humans who need transplants
Xenotransplantation - They are gradually making the organs less antigenic to humans
The main concern is that pig’s organs... might carry animal viruses into humans
Cloning of animals is now a reality. A diploid (2n) nucleus is inserted into enucleated eggs from donor. These eggs are inserted into the uterus and when developed and is finished the surrogate mother gives birth to the cloned animal.
Human genome project has two goals . To know the sequence of genes on all human chromosomes b. To know the sequence of bases on all human chromosomes
Gene therapy is.. the insertion of genetic materials in human cells for the treatments of a disorder.
Carcinogenesis takes many years to form because.. requires many mutations that occur over time.
Cancer cells are not specialized and lack differentiation.. can undergo a limitless number of cell division.
Nuclei of cancer cells are enlarged and can have.. an abnormal number of chromosomes.
Cancer cells produce an abnormal mass Aka Tumor.
Angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) is needed.. to help cancerous tumors continue to grow.
Cancer cells release growth factors that promote angiogenesis
Cancer cells metastasize (spread) and the prognosis depends on whether the tumor has spread to surrounding tissues
A carcinogen is an environmental agent that that can cause cancer; they are frequently mutagenic
Ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and tanning lamps can start the development of skin cancer.
. Melanoma is the spreading form of.. skin cancer.
Radon gas can lead to lung cancer second leading cause of lung cancer in the US.
X-rays and nuclear radiation can lead to cancer.
Tobacco smoke contains numerous carcinogens that can lead to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidney, and pancreas
Food rich in saturated fats and low in fiber are correlated with increased cancer rate for the colon, rectum, and prostate gland.
Certain food additives maybe carsincgenoti
Pollutants, industrial chemicals, herbicides, and pesticides can lead to cancer.
Viruses have been linked to.. liver cancer, cervical cancer, a form of lymphoma, and nasopharynx cancer.
Certain cancer such as breast, lung, and colon cancer runs in families.
Some childhood cancers are inherited.
Surgery followed by radiation... is recommended when cancer cells may have been left behind
Radiation, chemotherapy, and bone marrow transplants are also used for cancer treatment.