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Periodic Table

Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

matter anything that takes up space and has mass
mass the material that matter is made up of
volume how much room/space matter takes up
density D = m/v the amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific space
atom smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter
electron particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus, it has a negative charge and attractive force to bond with other atoms
proton particle of an atom that has a positive charge located in the nucleus
neutron particle of an atom located in the nucleus with a neutral or no charge
Periodic Table A large grid that identifies and classifies the elements into periods and groups by their chemical and physical properties
periods/rows provides information for how many energy levels/shells that surround the nucleus where the electrons move
groups/columns provides information for how many valence electrons an element has in its outer shell
atomic number number of protons an element has inside its nucleus / usually the same # of neutrons and electrons
element the simplest substances in the world / cannot be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe
chemical property the ability of substances to bond with one another and create a whole, new substance
physical property the state of matter and appearance of a substance
ionic bonding when elements lose or gain an electron while bonding
covalent bonding when elements share an electron during bonding
chemical change/reaction elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction or change
compound/molecule two or more elements bond together in a specific ratio/pattern creating a whole new and different substance
mixture when two or more substances combine together, but DO NOT change into a new substance
Nobel Gases Group #18 - the most stable elements with 8 valence electrons in their outer shell
Halogens Group #17 - very reactive elements with 7 valence electrons in their out shell, they want to bond with other elements, especially Group #1
Alkali Metals Group #1 - very reactive with only 1 valence electron, elements want to bond with others to become stable
Metalloids elements that are between metals and non-metals that can react like either one, these elements have 3-7 valence electrons
states of matter solid, liquid, gas, plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate
molecules of a solid no movement, rigid
molecules of a liquid move back and forth, up and down, slowly
water molecule 2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen
Created by: bkbrown