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indo-european/west germanic what group of languages did english come from
diffuse by migration and evolve by isolation how do languages change
Phoenicians and greeks alphabet derived from
Romance Branch Germanic Branch Slavic Branch Others (esp. Celtic) Indo-European Languages
Hungarian Finnish Basque Non-Indo-European Languages
Migrations of Angles, Jutes, and Saxons to Great Britain caused different Germanic dialects to go to different parts of Great Britain
Angles (Angle-land) England named after the
Latin Roman languages came from
23, 40 Latin had ?? letters and ?? sounds
French orthography Normans used what type of writing
great vowel shift pronunciation of some vowels changed
William Caxton, English printer selected standards based on London, chose some spellings over others
Noah Webster’s American dictionary Attempts at spelling reform
Europe Less than 4% of the world’s land area
Europe About 10-12% of the world’s population
Nationalism and Separatism National (cultural) identity and Desire to have more political power or separate and form own country
European Union established after World War II, desire to prevent a third world war
28 Union has ?? members
Economic and monetary union – Euro currency: € Common foreign and security policy Common policy on justice, border control, asylum, immigration, customs, police Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 4 Pillars (goals) of the Union and Supranationalism
Turkey not allowed to join the union
switzerland doesn't want to join the union
Complex street patterns Public squares and pedestrian spaces High density housing Low skylines Lively downtowns Scars of war Palaces, castles, cathedrals Public housing European cities
Spain and Portugal most Latin American immigrants from
Latin america Plantation and ranch settlements Mining Oil producers
maquiladoras factories built outside the US, traded goods not taxed
Mexico City capital of Mexico
Guatemala Today one of the poorest countries in Latin America
Guatemala City capital of Guatemala
Argentina One of world’s wealthiest countries in early 1900s Has suffered economic decline since 1945
Buenos Aires capital of Argentina
Chile Now one of Latin America’s richest countries
Santiago de Chile capital of Chile
Lima capital of Peru
Ivan the Great Ivan III
Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV
Sophia, niece of last Byzantine Emperor Ivan III married
Czar of all Russia Ivan IV takes title of
caesar "czar" comes from the word
Peter the Great (Peter I) Romanov dynasty comes to power under the rule of
Peter I founded new capital of st. petersburg
Nicholas II last czar of russia
Russian Revolution Growing distrust of, lack of faith in, and anger towards the Czarist regime began the
Lenin Bolsheviks led by
Communist Party ideology based on Marxism and rule by the workers (anti-capitalist)
Communist Party Bolsheviks later become
Communist Party basis for a one-party state without political opposition
"Soviet” means “council” the country was supposed to be governed by councils of workers
state-building, nation-building, economic development, foreign relations problems of the soviet union
Non-aggression pact with Germany signed in 1939 Germans break the pact and invade USSR in 1941 World War II Problems of Nazi expansion eastwards
Stalin-Trotsky dispute regarding international revolution
“Cold War” Policy of peaceful coexistence with West
Mikhail Gorbachev Reform policies – eliminate corruption and inefficiency, destabilize fossilized bureaucracy
Inefficient command economy, backward technology, Failed attempt to create Soviet identity, environmental problems, Failure to recognize and react to a more interdependent world what caused the collapse of the soviet union
Created by: pace_sauce