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What is S.P.I.C.E.S? Space, Place, Interconnection, Change, Environment, Sustainability
What are INPUTS in the terms of Natural Systems? Items or forces that enter the system. eg) rain or wind
What are OUTPUTS in the terms of Natural Systems? Matter or energy leaving the natural system, sediment moving in a flood, water vapor, dust in a dust storm etc.
What are COMPONENTS in the terms of Natural Systems? All the things that make up a natural system –atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere.
What are PROCESSES in the terms of Natural Systems? Actions where energy or matter is moved. eg) erosion, evaporation, silt deposits, photosynthesis etc
What are Natural Systems? (examples) Deserts, Mountains, River Valleys, Rain Forests, Tundra, Coral Reef
What is atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere? Atmosphere – air Biosphere – plants & animals Hydrosphere – water Lithosphere - earth
What is soil? The upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.
What is arable? (Of land) Used or suitable for growing crops.
What is topsoil? The top layer of soil
What is a water table? The level below which the ground is saturated with water.
What is groundwater? Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
What is land degradation? Process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land
What is Land clearing? The removal of native vegetation and deforestation in Australia
What is overgrazing? Graze (grassland) so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion
What are some introduced species, (both plants and animals)? European Rabbit & Patterson's Curse
What is climate change? A change in global or regional climate patterns
What is salinity? Salinity is the measure of all the salts dissolved in water.
What is urban growth? A regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl
Why is land degradation an increasing problem worldwide? Because the more we ruin the environment, the less land we will have to sustain our lifestyles
What are the 5 types of soil erosion? Sheet, Rill, Gully, Tunnel, Wind
Give an example of an invasive species. (Plant and Animal) European Rabbit & Patterson's Curse
How do invasive species affect native species? They destroy habitats and the land
How does dryland salinity occur? Build up of salts in the soil surface and groundwater in non-irrigated areas
How does irrigation salinity occur? By the addition of salts in irrigation water
What different practices did Indigenous communities use to manage the land? Working with the land rather than trying to change it. Understanding the calendar and pattern of the seasons. Taking only what was needed and not wasting resources
What is population density? How it is measured? The number of people within a given area, usually per square kilometre
What is population distribution? Why does it vary so much around the world? The spread of people across the world. Varies across the globe because of living conditions
What is life expectancy? How it is measured? The number of years a person can expect to live, usually when they are born, based on the average living conditions within a country
What is death rate? How it is measured Measure of number of deaths, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
What is birth rate? The number of live births per thousand of population per year.
What is child morality? The death of infants and children under the age of five
What is fertility rate? How it is measured? The average number of children born per woman
What is natural increase? How it is measured? The difference between the birth rate (births per thousand) and the death rate (deaths per thousand). This does not include changes due to migration.
What does replacement rate mean? The number of children each woman would need to have in order to ensure a stable population level — that is, to ‘replace’ its parents. This fertility rate is 2.1 children.
What does ageing population? What age group does this apply to? An increase in the number and percentage of people in the older age groups (usually 60 years and over)
What does dependant population mean? What age group does this apply to? Those in the under 15 years and over 60 years age groups. People in these age groups are dependent on those in the working age groups, either directly or indirectly for support.
What is population structure The number or percentage of males and females in a particular age group
What is wellbeing The state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy.
What are the issues with populations with low or no natural increase and an ageing population? (Japan is a good example) Pensions, Healthcare,
What are Australia's population characteristics? Ageing population. Majority of the population is spread along the coast.
What is BOTLS? Border (a line around it) Orientation (a compass direction) Legend (a key to the symbols used) Title (the name, usually at the top) Scale (a measure between the map and the real world) Source (where the information came from)
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