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Biology N5

Life On Earth

Biomes Seperate geographical areas that have the same climate (temperature and rainfall) and have similar flora and fauna.
Ecosystem Natural biological system made up of all the living and non-living things in an area.
When does competition between organisms occur? When organisms use same resource that is short supply.
What do plants growing in the same habitat compete for? They compete for light, space and water.
What do animals living in the same habitat compete for? They compete for habitat, space, prey/food and friends.
When competition becomes intense, what happens to biodiversity? It decreases.
What are the three main factors that have affect on biodiversity? Biotic, Abiotic and Human
What does abiotic mean? Non-living
What does biotic mean? Linked to living things.
Give examples of Abiotic factors pH, temperature, (soil) moisture, light intensity
Give examples of Biotic factors Grazing, Predation, Food availability, Disease, Competition
Explain Grazing When herbivores feed on plants.
Explain Predation When one organism hunts another and can affect many species within an ecosystem.
Explain the term Niche An organisms role within an ecosystem.
Explain Paratism When one organism feeds from a host. Only the parasite benefits. It is usually harmful for the host.
What are Producers? Green plant, produces its own food by photosynthesis.
What are consumers? An animal that eats another organism to consume its energy.
Why is nitrogen essential for organisms? To make protein for growth and repair.
Explain Nitrifying bacteria Convert ammonia to nitrites
Explain Denitrifying bacteria Breaks down nitrates and release nitrogen gas into the air.
Explain Root nodule bacteria Absorb atmospheric nitrogen and fix into nitrate.
Explain Free-fixing soil bacteria Absorb atmospheric nitrogen and fix into nitrate.
Explain Decomposers Break down waste and dead bodies and release ammonium compounds containing nitrogen into the soil.
What three main nutrients are found in fertilisers? Nitrogen Potassium Phosphorus
What is the purpose of Nitrogen? Growth of leaves and stems
What is the purpose of Potassium? Flowers and fruit
What is the purpose of Phosphorus? Roots
What is a mutation? Change in an organisms genetic material (genes).
What environmental factors can increase the rate of mutation? Mutagenic Agents Some types of radiation Certain chemicals
Why is variation important? It is the process by which alleles of genes are produced.
What is an adaption? Inherited characteristic that makes an organism well suited to it's environment.
State the three ways of adaption present in organisms Structural Physiological Behavioural
What is a stimulus? Changes in the environment.
Why is it important that animals learn to respond to a changing environment? So they can survive and reproduce.
Describe two types of behavioural adaptions shown by animals Migration Hiberation
What is a species? Organisms that look similar and reproduce to produce fertile offsprings.
What is speciation? It is the formation of new species.
What are the three types of Isolating Mechanism? Geographical Ecological Reproductive
What is Geographical Isolation? Species occur in different areas, which are often seperated by a physical barrier such as a river or mountain range.
What is Ecological Isolation? Species occur in the same areas,but they occupy different habitats and rarely encounter each other.
What is Reproductive Isolation? Species reproduce in different seasons or at different times of the day.
What are indicator species? Organisms (plant/animal/insect) that indicate level of pollution of an area without the need for chemical tests.
State 2 alternatives to mitigate the effects of intensive farming on the environment Battery Farming Monoculture
Created by: kiran_iqbal