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General 1

Q bank: Randomly Generated 1

QuestionAnswer
What anti-arrhythmic is associated with rash on cheeks and bridge of nose, numerous oral ulcers, antinuclear antibody positive, and mild anemia? Drug-induced lupus; Procainamide (Other agents with similar SE include hydralazine, chlorpromazine, isoniazid, methyldopa, and quinidine)
Antimuscarinic used in the treatment of diabetic urinary incotinence. Oxybutynin
How do those living at high altitudes acclimatize to conditions of low oxygen saturation and low oxygen partial pressure? Increase in hematocrit balances arterial oxygen content
Patient presents with swollen and painful toes, history of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and diarrhea. Diagnosis? Reiter syndrome; diarrhea caused by c. jejuni
An infant develops septic shock (hypothermia, hypotension, tachycardia, and leuocytosis with left-shift) with abdominal distention and tenderness. What is most likely seen at emergency surgery? Gangrene of the terminal ileum and ascending colon; Necrotizing enterocolitis (more common in formula fed then breast, can occur any time in infancy but especially first few months of life)
Microdeletion of 15q11.2 can result in this syndrome. Prader-Willi syndrome or Angelmann syndrome
Deletion at 22q11.2 is related to this disorder. Digeorge anomaly associated with T-cell immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, palate and facial abnormalities.
Esophagitis with punched-out ulcers on endoscopy are likely due to what condition? Herpes simplex virus
What is the method of increased virulence of strep pyogenes to scarlet fever? Lysogenic conversion, where a temperate phage DNA is inserted into bacterial chromosome to become a prophage.
What is the mechanism of action of Diltiazem? Calcium channel blocker that inhibits calcium influx into VSM and the myocardium. Also an AV nodal blocking agent used IV to control atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
Slowly progressive bilateral degeneration of what nerve results in wasting of the anterior compartment of the lower limb, gait disturbances, and foot drop? Deep peroneal nerve; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
What dictates the maximum velocity of muscle shortening? ATPase activity of the muscle
Pregant infection with Toxoplasma gondii results in this abnormality First trimester: necrotizing encephalitis; Second and third trimester: retinochoroiditis
Patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary stenosis are associated with what fetal infection? Rubella
Hydrops fetalis is associated with what fetal infection? B19 Parvovirus
UTI that is leukocyte esterase positive with no reactivity for nitrite. What organism is to blame. Enterococcus faecalis or staph saprophyticus; Leukocyte esterase says bacteria, nitrite reactivity says gram negative rod (so we can rule out things like p. aeruginosa, kliebsella, e. coli, and enterobacter)
Noncaseating granulomata in bilateral hilar lymph nodes. Diagnosis? Sarcoidosis (beryllium exposure may have similar findings, but exposure would be noted, so like a machinist or metal worker)
Calcified pleural plaques on base of the lungs. Diagnosis? Asbestos exposure
Bence-Jones proteins are primarily composed of this substance. Kappa light chains
Patient presents with low grade fever, weakness, malaise and chronic dry cough. Organism is slow growing in culture and serodiagnosis reveals cold agglutinins. Organism responsible? Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
In PTSD, how long must the patient exhibit symptoms in order to differentiate an acute stressor from a true disorder? 1 month
Aneurysm of the superior cerebellar atery would have effect what cranial nerve? CN III, arises from interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain and then passes between SCA and PCA lateral to basilar artery (aneurysm of any of these 3 can compress nerve)
This nerve is responsible for abduction of the eye. Abducens nerve, controls lateral rectus
This nerve is responsible for depression of the eye from the adducted position. Trochlear nerve via superior oblique muscle
Complete hydatidiform moles result from what event? Fertilization of an empty ovum by a single sperm producing diploid karyotype (46,XX or 46,XY); no fetal parts found
Partial hydatidiform moles have what genotype? often triploid or tetraploid, fetal parts frequently seen.
What percentage of hydatidiform moles progress to choriocarcinoma? 2%; luckily there choriocarcinomas of placental orgin are highly responsive to chemotherapy (nongestational choriocarcinoma, in contrast, is poorly responsive)
What veins are involved with internal and external hemorrhoids? Internal- superior rectal vein (drains into portal system); External- inferior rectal vein (drains into IVC)
How does creatinine behave in the proximal tubule? Filtered but not reabsorbed; 10-15% is secreted (which slightly disrupts calculation when used to estimate GFR)
This antibacterial is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and gonococcal infections. Tetracycline
Flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis act at what joint? Flexors at the wrist
This cytokine produced by TH1 cells acts on macrophages to enhance microbicidal activities. IFN-gamma
This cytokine is produced by leukocytes to inhibit viral replication. IFN-alpha
This cytokine is produced by fibroblasts to inhibit viral replication. IFN-beta
This cytokine is produced by macrophages and NK cells, cytotoxic to tumor cells, induces cytokine production, and causes cachexia of chronic inflammation. TNF-alpha
Patient with oral thrush and cervical lymphadenopathy presents with paralysis of lower limbs. Ring enhancing lesion on MRI in frontal lobe. Biopsy reveals bradyzoites What is the most common source of this infection? Patient has HIV; toxoplasmosis gondii is the secondary infection; source is most likely poorly cooked pork (though cats are the natural reservoir)
HIV patient presents with meningoencephalitis. What is the most likely causitive agent? Cryptococcus neoformans; vehicle of infection is bird droppings.
What stain is used to visualize cryptococcus neoformans and histoplasma? Silver stain for histo, india ink for crypto
This drug is a PGE1 agonist that decreases gastric acid secretion and promotes bicarb and mucus production. Misoprostol
Patient presents with hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and autonomic instability (tachycardia, diaphoresis, etc). What is the syndrome and what drugs can cause it? Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS); commonly associated with antipsychotic medications, as well as the antidepressant fluphenazine
Patient presents with history of staph aureus, aspergillus, and salmonella infection. Diagnosis? Chronic granulomatous disease; NADPH oxidase defeciency (Patients are also susceptible to Nocordia and Candida infections)
These patients are more susceptible to severe staphylococci and streptococci infections, and rarely make it to adulthood. Chediak-Higashi syndrome; mutated LYST gene resulting in impaired degranulation of lysosomes; associated with albinism
What pupillary abnormalities would you expect in Horner syndrome? miosis (constriction) that is reactive to light
What is Marcus Gunn pupil and what is it associated with? paradoxical dilation on swinging light test (from normal to Marcus Gunn pupil) caused by absence of adequate light entering pupil (retinal detachment or optic neuritis) also with MS and afferent lesion
What pupillary abnormalities would be expected with increased intracranial pressure? Fixed and dilated, accompanied by ptosis, caused by compression of CN III parasympathetic fibers
Created by: rahjohnson