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Neurology

First Aid: Neurology

QuestionAnswer
These cells provide neuronal physical support and help to maintain the blood brain barrier. Astrocytes
These cells are the inner lining of ventricles. Ependymal
These cells serve as neurologic phagocytes. Microglia
These cells produce myelin. Schwann cells (peripherally); Oligodenroglia (centrally)
The only CNS/PNS supportive cells that don't arise from ectoderm. Microglia; originates from mesoderm
These cells form multinucleated giant cells with HIV-infection. Microglia
These are the cells which are destroyed in multiple sclerosis. Oligodendroglia
Acoustic neuroma is an example of this type of tumor and mostly involves what nerves? Schwannoma; CN VII and VIII
Sensory corpuscles involved in light discriminatory touch. Meissner's
Sensory corpuscles involved in pressure, coarse touch, and vibration. Pacinian
Sensory corpuscles involved in light, crude touch. Merkel's
What are the primary hypothalamic functions? "TAN HATS!"; Thirst, Adenohypophysis, Neurohypophysis, Hunger, Autonomic, Temperature, Sexual Urges
This is the major relay center for ascending sensory information Thalamus
What sensory information travels through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus? Visual
What sensory information travels throught the medial geniculate nucleus? Auditory
What sensory information travels through the Ventral posterior nucleus (VPL and VPM)? VPL is body sensation; VPM is facial sensation
This structure is important in controlling voluntary movements and postural adjustments. Basal ganglia
What is the difference between the direct and indirect pathway? Direct pathway facilitates movement, indirect inhibits movement
A stroke of this artery will effect motor control of the leg and foot. Anterior cerebral artery
Broca's and Wernicke's speech areas are supplied by this artery. Middle cerebral artery
This is the most common site of berry aneurysm, lesions may cause visual-field defects. Anterior communicating artery
These arteries supply th einternal capsule, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. Lateral striae
The dorsal columns ascend in this manner and decussate at what point? Ipsilaterally; decussate at medulla
Spinothalamic tract ascends in this manner and decussate at what point? Contralaterally; decussate at anterior white comissure
Lateral corticospinal tract descends in this manner and decussates at what point? Ipsilaterally from motor cortex, decussates ate medulla, then descends contralaterally
Damage to this structure causes Erb's palsy. Upper trunk of brachial plexus
Damage to this structure causes Klumpke's palsy (claw hand). Lower trunk of brachial plexus
Damage to these nerves causes wrist drop? Posterior cord or radial nerve
Damage to this nerve causes deltoid paralysis? Axillary nerve
Damage to this nerve causes winged scapula. Long thoracic nerve
Damage to this nerve causes difficulty in flexing elbow, as well as variable sensory loss. Musculocutaneous nerve
What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Embryologic defect causing compression of the subclavian artery and inferior trunk resulting in: atrophy of thenar and hypothenar eminences, atrophy of interossesu muscles, claw hand and disappearance of radial pulse when looking contralaterally
Damage to this nerve will result in loss of dorsiflexion (foot drop). Common peroneal (L4-S2)
Damage to this nerve will result in loss of plantar flexion. Tibial (L4-S3)
Damage of this nerve will result in loss of knee extension/knee jerk. Femoral (L2-L4)
Damage to this nerve will result in loss of hip adduction. Obturator (L2-L4)
Damage to this structure will result in right anopia? right optic nerve
Damage to this structure will result in bitemporal hemianopia. optic chiasm
Damage to this structure will result in left homonymous hemianopia? Left field lost in both eyes; right optic tract
These are the only two muscles of the eye not innervated by the oculomotor nerve. Lateral rectus (innervated by abducens) and superior oblique( innervated by trochlear)
What are the 3 neural tube defects and their usual cause? Usually caused by low folic acid intake during pregnancy; spina bifida occulta (failure of bony canal to close; meningocele (herniation of meninges); meningomyocele (herniation of meninges and spinal cord)
Damage to this area causes nonfluent aphasia with good comprehension. Broca's aphasia
Damage to this area causes fluent aphasia with poor comprehension. Wernicke's aphasia
Damage to this area results in tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis. Basal ganglia
Damage to this area causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Mammillary bodies
Damage to this area causes truncal ataxia. Cerebellar vermis
This disease is associated with beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson's like disease associated with aggregated tau proteins and specific for frontal and temporal lobes. Pick's disease;
Associated with chorea and dementia due to atrophy of the caudate nucleus. Huntingtons disease
Associated with Lewy bodies and depigmentation of substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy results in this syndrome. friedreich's ataxia
Degeneration of both LMN and UMN with no sensory deficits. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Inherited degeneration of anterior horn cells resulting in flaccid paralysis and tongue fasciculations. Werdnig-Hoffman disease
Degeneration of anterior horn cells resulting in LMN signs, often in association with flu-like symptoms. Poliomyelitis
Periventricular plaques with oligodendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis. Relapsing remitting course. Diagnosis? Multiple sclerosis
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with this virus. JC virus in AIDS patients
Inflammation and demylination of peripheral nerves causing symmetric ascending muscle weakness. Guillain-Barre syndrome
Seizure resembling a blank stare. Absence (petit mal)
Seizure consisting of quick, repetitive jerks. Myoclonic
Alternating stiffening and movement seizure. Tonic-clonic (grand mal)
Epidural hematoma is associated with rupture of this vessel. Middle meningeal artery
Subdural hematoma is associated with rupture of this vessel. Venous bleeding
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with rupture of this vessel. Rupture of berry aneurysm (circle of willis)
Most common adult brain tumor. Glioblastome multiforme
Easily resectable brain tumor arising from arachnoid cells. Meningioma
Slow growing tumor of the frontal lobes associated with "fried egg" cells. Oligodendroglioma
Benign childhood tumor that can cause bitemporal hemianopsia. Craniopharyngioma (pituitary adenoma can as well but not common in children)
Cerebellar tumor associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Hemangioblastoma (vHL when with retinal angiomas); Can produce EPO leading to secondary polycythemia
Highly malignant cerebellar tumor. Medulloblastoma
Tumor associated with enlarged fourth ventricles and capable of causing hydrocephalus. Ependymoma
Patient presents with scanning speech, intention tremor, and nystagmus. Multiple sclerosis
Occlusion of this artery results in sparing of dorsal columns. Ventral artery
Degeneration of dorsal roots and dorsal columns leading to impaired proprioception and locomotor ataxia in this disease. Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphillis); Argyll Robertson pupils
How would you distinguish between an upper and lower motor facial lesion? UMN lesion results in contralateral paralysis of lower face only; LMN lesion results in ipsilateral paralysis of upper and lower face
Ipsilateral facial paralysis with inability to close eye on involved side. Bell's palsy
In a CN XII lesion the tongue will deviate toward or away from side of lesion? Toward side of lesion
In a CN V mot lesion, jaw will deviate toward or away from side of lesion? Toward side of lesion
In a CN X lesion, uvula will deviate toward or away side of lesion? Away from side of lesion
In a CN XI lesion, what physical exam findings can one expect? Weakness turning head toward contralateral side (SCM) and shoulder droop (trapezius)
Created by: rahjohnson