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Satterlie Test 3

Photosynthesis and Genetics

What is the basic goal of photosynthesis? to make organic molecules from CO2
Autotroph organism that produces organic molecules
Photoautotroph use light energy to make organic molecules
Heterotroph must consume organic molecules
What organelle is the site of photosynthesis? Choloroplast inner and outer membranes, thylakoid, thylakoid membrane, thylakoid lumen, granum, stroma
What molecule absorbs light energy in photosynthesis? Chlorophyll
In what structure is the light-absorbing molecule found? Chloroplast
When a pigment absorbs light energy, what happens that allows it to initiate a series of energy-yielding reactions? When a chloroplast gets excited by light can donate electron energy to a non excited chloroplast
What happens in Photosystem 2? light is harvested, energy can be donated from one chloroplast to another, p680 transfers excited electrons to start electron transport, in order for p680 to function again it needs to get its 2 electrons back- get those by the splitting of water
What is resonance energy transfer and how is it used in photosystem 2? transfer energy from molecule to molecule
What is the reaction center of PS II? p680
What is the role of p680 in PS II? transfers excited electrons to start electron transport
Where are the components of the photosystems found? thylakoid membrane
Why is water cleaved in PS II but not PS I? In PS II p680 donates electrons but needs them back so it does so by splitting water
When electrons leave PS II and run through the electron transport series, what is the released energy used for? to go across the membrane, later resulting in ATP synthase
What are the ultimate products of the non-cyclic electron flow in the light reactions of photosynthesis? ATP, NaDPh
What is the cyclic electron flow and how does it differ from the non-cyclic electron flow? Cyclic electron flow avoids both PSII and the donation of electrons to NADP+. Electrons instead are passed from PSI to an electron transport chain, resulting in proton pumping,returned to reduce PSI, returning that photosystem to its ground state
Why are both cyclic and non-cyclic energy flows needed? non cyclic produces NaDH and cyclic produces ATP
What does ATP synthase do in the thylakoid membrane?
How is the proton gradient formed and across what membrane? Where is it high and where is it low? high- thylakoid lumen, stroma
What is the function of the Calvin Cycle part of Photosynthesis? produce carbohydrates
In the Calvin Cycle involved in production of energy? no
Where in a Eukaryotic cell does the Calvin Cycle take place? the stroma of a chloroplast
What are the 3 phases of the Calvin Cycle? 1. Carbon fixation 2. reduction of carb 3. regeneration
Phase 1: Carbon Fixation CO2 is bound to a s-carbon sugar (rubicso) called RuBP
Phase 2: Reduction of Carb organic molecules are reorganized, requiring both ATP and NADPH energy to make glucose
Phase 3: Regeneration regeneration of RuBP
What is Rubisco and what does it do? most plentiful enzyme on earth that catalyzes initial event
Direct intercellular cell signalling gap junctions
Contact- dependent cell signalling requires receptors/membrane bound proteins that are specific for a stimulatory molecule
Autocrine cell signalling self stimulation mechanism/chemical released from cell which has receptors to that chemical mechanism for amplification of a response
Paracrine cell signalling first cell releases chemical so that a second cell could get a reaction to that chemical. two nearby cells communicate through release of a chemical from one cell and interaction of hat chemical with a receptor on the other cell
Endocrine cell signalling hormones; released into circulatory system releasing tissue can be some distance from target tissue
What is a gap junction? allows small molecules to go from one cell to another without being sent out of the cell. direct pathways from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of another cell through which small molecules and electrical currents can pass
What is a ligand and how do they trigger a response in a target cell? the chemical in signalling and response receptor
What is signal transduction? take a stimulant and produce a response
What does a protein kinase do? enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation)
How does adrenaline alter the activity of skeletal muscle? amplifies the response, control, pathways can branch to impact different aspects of cell function
What does adenylyl cyclase do? produces cAMP from ATP and activates protein kinase and a cellular response
To shut down a cAMP response, what two termination mechanisms does a cell use? phosphodieterase- inactivates cAMP protein phosphatases- dephosphorate proteins
What is another common second messenger other than cAMP? cGMP DAG IP3
What is apoptosis? programmed cell death
What is the difference between a diploid and haploid cell? 2n n
What does it mean when chromosomes are called homologues? members of a pair of chromosomes
What are the three phases of interphase? G1- cell becomes committed to divide if it receives the right molecular signals and its under the right environmental conditions S phase- chromosomes are replicated to produce a pair of sister chromatids G2- more cell growth, protein synthesis/cell di
Astral Microtubules extend away from chromosomes and used to position the 2 spindle apparati- form the 2 poles
Polar Microtubules used to push poles apart
Kinetochore microtubules pull sister chromatids apart and move them to spindles at the two poles
Sister chromatids two identical copies formed by the replication of a single chromosome
centromere links sister chromatids
chromosome condensation dramatic reorganization of the long thin chromatin strands into compact short chromosomes that occurs in mitosis and meiosis.
Phases of Mitosis PPMAT
Prophase separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells.
Prometaphase eparates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells, nuclear envelope, breaks down.
Metaphase chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate
Anaphase chromosomes split apart, going to either side of the cell
telephase sister chromatids reach opposite poles. The small nuclear vesicles in the cell begin to re-form around the group of chromosomes at each end.
cytokinesis animal cell- formation of the cleavage furrow, constricts to produce 2 seperate cells plant cell- golgi derived vesicles line up in the center of 2 nuclei, vesicles form to cell plate, forms cell wall between 2 daughter cells
cleavage furrow indentation of the cell's surface that occurs during cytokinesis
Why is it necessary for meiosis to include two division cycles? to get 23 sister chromatid pairs per division
Synaptonemal complex a protein structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis and is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination.
bivalent (tetrad) a pair of associated homologous chromosomes held together by a complex after chromosome replication.
crossing over the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
meiosis 1 process by which replicated chromosomes undergo two nuclear divisions to produce four haploid cells
Meiosis 2 basically mitosis
What is a diploid-dominant organism? humans
What is a haploid- dominant organism? algae human gametes
What does alternation of generations mean and how is it related to the diploid/haploid situations? the only haploid cells in humans are gametes and they alternate through generations
Sporophyte diploid (meiosis produces spores, produce gametophyte)
Gametophyte haploid (produces haploid gametes-fertilization produces dipload sporophyte)
What are the four kinds of chromosome mutations? Deletions , Duplications, inversions, translocations
Deletions lose a segment of a chromosome- usually deleterious
Duplications segment of a chromosome can occur 2 or more times in a row- typically deleterious
Inversions change in direction of genetic material in a chromosome
Translocations one segment of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome
Euploid correct number of chromosomes
Polyploid 3 or more copies of a chromosome
Aneuploid not an exact multiple of a set
Trisomy if the extra copy was of chromosome 3
Monosomy presence of only one chromosome in a pair
trisomy 21 down syndrome
Trait identifiable characteristic of an organism
Hybridization breeding of 2 individuals of the same species with different traits
Genotype genetic identity
Phenotype outward appearance
P generation parents
F1 generation first offspring
What conclusions did Mendel reach from his experiments on pea plants? 1. traits exist as dominant and recessive 2. 2 genes are carried for a given character 3. genes have varients- alleles 4. 2 alleles seperate sperm and egg only recieve 1 allele 5. F1 expressed the trait of 1 parent or the other 6. "unit factors"
Law of Segregation each parent carries 2 versions of a gene and the 2 alleles segregate from each other during gamete formation. each gamete only requires 1 allele
Law of Independent Assortment alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during gamete formation- no linkage
mitogen A chemical protein that encourages cell division
Created by: sbm4175