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Goal Desired future state an organization attempts to realize
plan Blueprint specifying the rescourse allocations, scedules, and other actions necessary for attaining goals.
planning determining the org's goals and the means for achieving them.
External Message legitimacy for investors, customers, suppliers, community.
Internal Message legitimacy, motivation, resource allocation, guides, rationale, standards.
strategic goals/plans Senior MGMT (org as a whole)
Tactical Goals/Plans Middle MGMT (major divisions/functions)
operational goals/plans lower MGMT
purpose of goals/plans legitimacy, source of motivation and commitment, resource allocation, guides to action.
legitimacy what the org stands for
source of motivation and commitment employees identification with the org
resource allocation alocates employees, money, and equiptment
guides to action provides a sense of direction; focus attention on specific targets.
internal and external messages goals and plans send rationale for decisions and standard for performance
rationale for decisions learn what the org is trying to accomplish. ensure everything fits in with the DESIRED OUTCOME!
standard for performance provide a standard of assessment
mission orgs reason for existing
mission statement basic business scope. distingushes it from other orgs
strategic goals future plans. plans for whole org
strategic plans action steps to attain strategic goals. Blueprint that defines the orgs activities and resource allocation. long-term
Tactical goals apply to middle MGMT. Goals that define the outcomes that major divisions and departments must achieve.
Tactical Plans Plans designed to help execute strategic plans. shorter time frame than strategic plans.
Operational Goals specific, measurable results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals
Operational Plans Action steps toward operational goals Daily and weekly operations scedules are an important component
Means-End Chain achievment of lower level goals permits attainment of high-level goals.
characteristics of effective goal setting specific and measureable. challenging but realistic. defined time period. linked to rewards.
MGMT by objective process step 1: set goals step 2: Develop action plans step 3: review progress step 4: Appraise overall performance
MGMT by objective process benefits - Manager and employee efforts are focused - performance can be improved - employees are motivated - departmental and individual goals are aligned
MGMT by objective process problems - constant change -poor employee-employer relations reduces MBO effectiveness - strategic goals may be displaced by operational goals - mechanistic orgs and values that discourage participation -too much paperwork saps energy
single use plans goals not likely to be replaced
program complex set of objectives and plans to achieve an important, one time org goal
project similar to a program but usually smaller in scope
standing plans tasks performed repeatedly
policy general guide to action and provides direction for peolpe within the org
rules describe how a specific action is to be performed
procedures define a precise series of steps to be used in achieving a specific job.
contingency plans unexpected conditions
what to do for contingency plans * identify uncontrollable factors -economic turndowns -declining markets -increases in costs of supplies tech developments safety accidents
building scenarios looking at trends and discontinuities and imagining possible alternative futures to build a framework within which unexpected future events can be managed.
three stages of crisis MGMT prevention, preperation, containment
prevention build trusting relationship with key stakeholders - open communication
preparation - crisis MGMT team and plan - Establish an effective comm system
containment - Activate the crisis MGMT plan - Get the awful truth out - meet safety and emotional needs - return to business
planning for high performance - planning changes as global environment changes - less top-down MGMT -involve managers throughout the org -strategic thinking and execution is becoming job of all employees.
planning in new workplace event driven planning streach goals strong mission statement establish learning culture
strategic MGMT pertains to competative actions in the workplace
core competance something the org does especially well
synergy sum is greater than parts
value combintion of benefits recieved and costs paid
swot strength weaknesses oppurtunaties threats
business lvl strategy (porter) potential new entrants bargaining power of buyers bargaining power of suppliers threat of substitute products rivalry among competators
differentiation flexable, loose knit, with strong coordination creative flair strong marketing abilities rewards employee innovation reputation for quality
cost leadership central authority, tight cost controls efficient procurement and distribution systems close supervision, finite employee empowerment
focus frequent, detailed control reports direct combination of policies to strategic policies values and rewards flexability and customer intimacy pushes empowerment to employees with customer contact.
partnership strategies collaboration is an alternative form of strategy competition and collaboration are often present at the same time the internet is driving more partnerships
Leadership use persuasion motivate employees shape cultures/values
HR recruit/select employees managetransfers/ romotions/ training direct layoffs
structural design design org chart -create teams -determine centralization/ decentralization
Info and control systems revise pay and rewards change budget allocations implement info systems
Created by: tonedef543