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Biochemistry Unit

All the vocab for unit 3 on biochemistry

Term/QuestionDefinition/Answer
Atom Basic unit of matter
Neutron Neutral (no charge) subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
Proton Positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
Electron Negatively charged subatomic particle that exists in clouds around the outside of an atom
Isotope Atoms with different numbers of neutrons inside the atom, changing the atomic number of the atom.
Compound 2 or more atoms chemically bonded together
Ionic Bond Chemical bond where electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Covalent Bond Chemical bond where electrons are shared between atoms
Molecule 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Water 1 oxygen atom, and 2 hydrogen atoms bonded together. The OXYGEN is NEGATIVE, and HYDROGEN is POSITIVE
Polarity Oppositely charged sides of a molecule. Having 2 poles. A positive side and a negative side.
Hydrogen Bonds Attraction between two water molecules. (negative oxygen of one, and the positive hydrogen of another)
Cohesion Attraction of molecules of same substance like water attracting to water. (explains surface tension, puddles, etc)
Adhesion Attraction of molecules of different substances like water attracting to something else (explains capillary action and water absorbing into paper towel.
Surface Tension Water molecules sticking together to allow things like insects to walk on top. Cohesion property.
Capillary Action Water being pulled upwards (against gravity) like traveling up tubes in plants. Adhesion property.
Hydrophillic Water loving. Things that mix well with water like salt, sugar, food coloring, etc.
Hydrophobic Water fearing. Things that don't mix well with water like oil, fats, waxes, phospholipids.
Macromolecule Large organic molecule consisting of smaller building blocks called monomers.
Carbohydrate Something that provides quick energy. Examples are grains, sugars, cereal, breads, etc.
Saccharide Monomer of carbohydrate
Protein Something that helps in building structure like hair, nails, muscle. Also helps speed up chemical reactions
Amino Acid Monomer of protein
Lipid Long term energy storage for the body, stores the most energy.
Fatty Acid Monomer of lipid
Nucleic Acid Contains genetic material for body and helps in protein synthesis
Nucleotide Monomer of nucleic acid
Enzyme Speeds up chemical reactions, a type of protein.
Created by: Rylands