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NRTC Chap 16

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base imbalances

Body fluid components H2O, chemicals, electrolytes, acids, and bases
How much of your body is H2O 60%
Where is 2/3 of your fluid located Intracellular Fluid
Range for avg. fluid intake 1800-3600 mL/day
Sources of fluid elimination urination, bowel elimination, perspiration, breathing, sweat, exhaled air
What is physiologic process movement of fluid and exchange of chemicals is continuous to maintain homeostasis
What are 4 physiologic process osmosis, filtration, passive and facilitated diffusion, and active transport
TRUE OR FALSE: K+ is mostly found inside the cell TRUE
Neurons that sense blood concentration; stimulates release of ADH Osmoreceptors
Cheicals released to increase BP and blood volume Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
Medical management for hypovolemia teach pt 8 glasses H2O/day, educate to drink when thirsty, avoid ETOH or caffeine
Medical management for hypervolemia limit Na+, limit foods high in Na+
What is third-spacing Translocation of fluid from intravascular to tissue compartments
Normal Na+ Range 136-145 mEq/L
Medical management for hyponatremia IV NaCl
Medical management for hypernatremia hypotonic IV solution 0.45% NaCl or 5% Dextrose
Normal K+ Range 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What causes Hypokalemia K+ wasting diuretics,GI tract fluid loss, corticosteroids
What causes Hyperkalemia renal failure, K+ sparing diuretics, supplements, crushing injuries, Addison's disease, salt substitues
K+ rich foods avacado, broccoli, dairy, dried fruit, cataloupe, bananas
Normal Ca++ Range 9.0-10.5 mg/dL
What does calcatonin do decreases calcium in the blood and tones the bones
What is circumoral paresthesia tingling of extremities and area around the mouth
Medical management for hypocalcemia oral calcium and vitamin D
Who is usually hypercalcemia the chronically ill
Normal Mg Range 1.3-2.1 mEq/L
hypomagnesemia causes ETOHism, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal disease, burns, malnutrition, intestinal malabsorption, loop diuretics
What are some assessment findings for Hypermagnesemia flushing, hypotension, lethargy, bradycardia, muscle weakness, coma
Normal pH Range 7.35-7.45
Normal carbon dioxide(PaCO2) 35-45
Normal bicarbonate(HCO3) 22-26
What does ABG mean arterial blood gases
What are the 2 mechanisms that the body uses to maintain normal pH Chemical and Organ
What is the second line of defense Lungs
Kidneys are the 3rd line of defense and regulate what levels bicarbonate
Excessive accumulation of acids or excessive loss of bicarbonate in body fluids Acidosis
What is Alkalosis Excessive accumulation of bases or loss of acid in body fluids
Resp acidosis pH <7.35, PaCO2 >45, HCO3 22-26
Met acidosis pH <7.35, PaCO2 35-45, HCO3 <22
Resp alkalosis pH >7.45, PaCO2 <35, HCO3 22-26
Met alkalosis pH <7.45, PaCO2 35-45, HCO3 >26
Uncompensated pH is abnormal and so is HCO3 or PaCO2, not both
Partially compensated pH, CO2 and HCO3 will be abnormal
Fully compensated pH is normal, but CO2 and HCO3 are abnormal
Created by: bekaleyce