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AP 2 Exam 1

NS, Blood & Endocrine Systems

QuestionAnswer
Explain why the nervous system is compared to an airmail delivery system. Nervous system uses rapidly propagated electrical "messages"
Explain why the endocrine system is compared to the pony express. Endocrine system "messages" (hormones) are released into the blood to travel much more slowly to target organs.
Define hormone a chemical substance released into the blood which alters "target cell" metabolism in a specific way
What two molecular groups do hormones belong to? steroids and amino acid based molecules
What do all hormones have in common? they are all chemical molecules that have specific target organs and that are reached via blood.
Define target organ. Organ responding to a particular hormone in a specific way.
If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don't all tissues respond to all hormones? The proper "hormone" receptors must be present on the plasma memebrane or within the cells for the tissue cells to respond.
What is located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus? thyroid gland
What is found close to the kidney? adrenal gland
What is a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine? pancreas
What is a paired glands suspended in the scrotum? testes
What rides horseback on the thyroid gland? parathyroids
What is found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production? ovaries
What is found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth? thymus
What is found in the roof of the 3rd ventricle? pineal body
What is the hormone and the site of production for programming of T lymphocytes? thymosin and site: thymus
What is the hormone and the site of production that are released in response to stressors? cortisone and adrenal cortex; epinephrine and adrenal medulla
What hormone and site of production for regulation of blood calcium levels? calcitonin and thyroid gland; PTH and parathyroid glands
What is the hormone and the site of production for the drive of development of secondary sexual characteristics? estrogens and ovaries; testosterone and testes; ACTH and anterior pituitary; FSH and anterior pituitary; LH and anterior pituitary
What is the hormone and site of production that regulates the function of another endocrine gland? TSH and anterior pituitary
What is the hormone and the site of production that mimics the sympathetic nervous system? epinephrine and adrenal medulla
What is the hormone and site of production that regulates blood glucose levels; produced by the same "mixed" gland? glucagon and pancreas; insulin and pancreas
What is the hormone and site of production that is directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle? estrogens and ovaries; progesterone and ovaries
What is the hormone and the site of production for the maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid? ADH and hypothalamus; aldosterone and adrenal cortex
What is the hormone and the site of production that is directly involved in milk production and ejection? oxytocin and the hypothalamus; prolactin and anterior pituitary
How does the hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituitary functioning? Produces "releasing and inhibiting hormones" which control the production and release of anterior pituitary hormones; forms hormones ADH and oxytocin, which are transported to the posterior pituitary then released on nervous stimulation from hypothalamus
How is the hormone ADH stimulated? the nervous system
How is the hormone aldosterone stimulated? humoral factors (the concentration of specific nonhormonal substances in the blood or extracellular fluid)
How is the hormone estrogen stimulated? another hormone
How is the hormone insulin stimulated? humoral factors
How is the hormone norepinephrine stimulated? the nervous system
How is the hormone parathyroid hormone stimulated? humoral factors
How is the hormone t4/t3 stimulated? another hormone
How is the hormone testosterone stimulated? another hormone
How is the hormone TSH, FSH stimulated? the nervous system
What does PTH produce if inadequate amounts are released? tetany
What is a hormone? 1. Produced by glandular tissue 2. Enters interstitial space3. Enters vascular system 4. Goes to a target tissue
How many intercellular messenger types are there? six
What is the 1st intercellular messenger type? Hormones
What is the 2nd intercellular messenger type? Neurotransmitter
What is the 3rd intercellular messenger type? Neurohormone
What is the 4th intercellular messenger type? Paracrine cells - influence local tissues
What is the 5th intercellular messenger type? Autocrine cells - self influencing
What is the 6th intercellular messenger type? Pheromones - released into the environment
How do hormones work? 1. Amplitude modulated signal - conc time period 2. Frequency modulated signal - short bursts used up rapidly
What two categories do hormones fall into? Lipid and Water based.
What kind of life expectancy does lipid based hormones have? longer half life
What kind of life expentancy does water based hormones have? shorter half life
What is half life? amount of time it takes to break down 50% of the substance
What is one way of prolonging half life? conjugation - done by the liver binding hormones with proteins
What is the 1st way that we can influence the release of hormones? Humoral - (inside the body)Ion conc can influence release of hormones, blood sugars
What is a 2nd way that we can influence the release of hormones? Nervous System - stress, neurohormones
What is a 3rd way that we can influence the release of hormones? Hormonal - hormone to hormone influence
What are the two types of receptors? intramembraneous- hormones influence the cell by activating the membrane and intercellular receptor which takes place in the cell (up and down regulation)
What does the pituitary gland connect to? hypothalamus
What is the hypothalamus part of? diencephalons
What does the hypothalamus do? it regulates the release of hormones by the pituitary gland (master gland)
What does the hypothalamus secrete? It secretes releasing or inhibiting hormones to pituitary gland.
What does the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system connect to? hypothalamus to ant. pit.
What does the hypothalamohypophyseal nerve tract connect to? hypothalamus to the post. pit.
Created by: Jess2008