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atmosphere the mixture of gases that surround the Earth
air pressure the measure of the forces with which particles in the air on an area of a surface
troposphere the lowest layer in which weather occurs; also has an average thickness from 10-12 km
stratosphere the layer of atmosphere above the troposphere; the top of it is an average of 50 km
mesosphere the layer of atmosphere above the troposphere;the top of it is an average of 50 km above Earth's surface
ionosphere the region of the Earth's atmosphere and the exosphere, consisting of several ionized layers
exosphere the uppermost layer where a single particle can travel for km before hitting another particle
ozone layer it protects Earth by absorbing large amounts of harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun
thermosphere the uppermost layer of the atmosphere; The top of the layer is around 500-1,000 km
greenhouse effect the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb and give off infrared radiation
temperature measure of the average kinetic energy of particles
thermal energy the total kinetic energy of particles
thermal expansion the increase in volume that results from an increase of temperature
heat the energy that is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
global wind pressure belts at every 30 degrees of latitude and the equator in both hemispheres
trade winds winds that blow 30 degrees latitude and the equator in both hemispheres
radiation the transfer of electromagnetic waves
convection the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter
conduction the transfer of energy from one object to another through direct contact
wind the movement of air due to the differences in air pressure
coriolis effect the apparent curving f a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth's rotation
jet stream narrow belt of high speed winds that blow from west to east
sea breeze a cool breeze coming off the ocean or lake
land breeze wind blowing from the land towards water
mountain breeze areas that have mounatins experiencing land breezes
valley breeze areas that have valleys experiencing local winds
global winds pressure belts at every 30 degrees of latitude areas and wind systems
trade winds winds hat blow between 30 degrees latitude and the equator in both hemispheres
westerlies winds that blow between 30 degree and 60 degree latitudes
polar easterlies winds that blow between the poles and 60 degree latitude
doldrums calm areas around the equator where trade winds meet
horse latitudes when air stops moving and sinks at about 30 degree latitude
weather the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a certain time and place
humidity the amount of water vapor in the air
relative humidity the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation
dew point the temperature at which more condensation that evaporation occurs
precipitation any form of water that falls to Earth's surface from the water occurs
cirrus they are a type of cloud that appear feathery and wispy
cumulus heap, pile, if they appear to grow taller, they produce thunderstorms
stratus clouds that form in flat layers; low, dark cluds can blck out the sun and produce steady drizzles or rain
air pressure (density) the force of air molecules pushing down on an area's surface they can both decrease with altitude
high pressure system they can cause air to sink slowly down; when the air reaches to the ground it spreads out towards areas with low pressure with low pressure
low pressure system air rises and so has has a lower pressure than areas around it
air mass large volume of air in which temperature and moisture content are nearly the same throughout
front a boundary that forms between the air masses
cold front they form where cold air moves under warm air
warm front they form where warm air moves over cold air
stationary front they form where cold and warm air stop moving
occluded front they form during cyclogenesis
evaporation this occurs when a liquid changes into a gas
condensation this occurs when a gas becomes a liquid
runoff the flow of water that occurs when water sources flow over Earth's surface
cyclogenesis when a cold front overtakes a warm front
Created by: aregrut