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Frontiers of Biotech

Frontiers of Biotechnology

TermDefinition
restriction enzymes enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
gel electrophoresis when an electrical current is used to separate a mixture of DNA fragments from each other
restriction map maps that show the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites in a strand of DNA
polymerase chain reaction a technique that produces millions - or even billions - of copies of a specific DNA sequence in just a few hours
primer a short segment of DNA that acts as the starting point for a new strand
DNA fingerprint a representation of part of an individual's DNA that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
clone a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism
genetic engineering the changing of an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits
recombinant DNA DNA that contains genes from more than one organism
plasmid closed loops of DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome and that replicate on their own within the cell
transgenic having one or more genes from another organism inserted into one's genome
gene knockout disrupting the function of a gene
genomics the study of genomes, which can include the sequencing of all of an organism's DNA
gene sequencing determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes
Human Genome Project project in which the goals are to map and sequence all of the DNA base pairs of the human chromosomes and to identify all of the genes within the sequence
bioinformatics the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data
DNA microarray tools that allow scientists to study many genes, and their expressions, at once
proteomics the study and comparison of all the proteins that result from an organism's genome
genetic screening the process of testing DNA to determine a person's risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder
gene therapy the replacement of a defective or missing gene, or the addition of a new gene, into a person's genome to treat disease
Created by: tuohybio1415
 

 



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