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Skin damage types

WOCN program

QuestionAnswer
Identify at least four factors that contribute to skin damage Chemical, moisture, infection, mechanical, radiation, friction, infectious, allergic response, viral, vascular , burn, inflammatory, intrinsic disease
List the types of skin infections and management fungal, bacterial, viral,arthropod
classification system for skin tears #I can be approximated (A)linear (like incision) (B) flap <1mm dermis exposed #2(A) scant tissue loss >75% dermis covered by flap(B) moderate to large tissue loss>25% dermis exposed #3 complete tissue loss-no flap
management of radiation dermatitis gently cleanse, moisturize, symptom management (compressed for itching)prevent trauma, manage radiation dermatits with dressings if needed
The term incontinence associated dermatitis has replaced what terms diaper or perineal dermatitis
Identify chemical factors that cause skin injury Fecal incontinence, alcohol, betadine, GI contents, drainage from percutaneous tubes
Describe the symptoms and common location for candidiasis Itching, white cheesy exudate, skin folds, satellite lesions
What is the difference between cellulitis and erysipelas Erysipelas has prodromal sx, sharply defined erythema, very painful, edema, streaking r/t of following the lymphatic tract-Cellulitis:erythema with diffuse border, tenderness, warmth and edema
Name two common viral infections of the skin Herpes simplex and varicella zoster
allergic contact dermatitis Located precisely at the point of contact, sharp margination, erythematous no satellite lesions
grades of radiation dermatitis #1 Erythema, dry desquamation, #2 patchy moist desquamation in skin folds, brisk erythema, moderate edema #3 moist desquamation other than skin folds #4 ulceration, necrosis, full thickness, spontaneous bleeding
What is the name of the classification system for skin tears Payne-Martin classification system
Treatment for category II and III skin tears is transparent film dressing. True or false False
What is a common cause of chemical dermatitis loose stool, C. Diff
Identify three categories of skin protectants Barrier moisture ointment, moisture barrier paste, skin sealant
what is the is the key indicator of candidiasis pruritis
What is the term for inflammation of the skin folds Intertrigo
What two conditions can be confused with candidiasis contact dermatitis, folliculitis
How can you distinguish pressure ulcers from genital herpes Location- pressure ulcers over bony prominence herpes on fleshy skin areas
when does the greatest radiation skin effects occur after treatment ends
Define dry desquamation Skin is intact but erythematous, flaky or scaly
True or false: radiation recall can occur after the administration of doxorubicin True
A lesion that is elevated, firm, and <1cm in diameter is known as : papule
A vesicle >1cm in diameter is known as : bulla
Name mechanical causes of skin damage Friction, shearing forces, pressure, skin stripping
Macule flat, circumscribed, <1cm, different color than skin (nevus)
Papule elevated, firm, circumscribed, <1cm (wart)
Patch flat, nonpalpable, iregular shaped macule >1cm (port wine stain)
Plaque elevated, firm, rough, flat top, >1cm (Psoriasis)
Wheal elevated, irregular shape, cutaneous edema, solid, transient, variable diameter (bug bite)
Nodule elevated, firm, circumscribed, deeper in dermis that papule 1-2cm (lipoma)
Vesicle elevated, cirmscribed, superficial, fillied with serous fluid, <1cm (herpes zoster, chicken pox)
Bulla vesicle >1cm (blister)
Pustule elevated, superficial, similar to vesicle but filled with prurulent fluid (acne)
Cyst elevated, circumscribed, encapsulated in dermis or sub. q layer, filled with fluid or semisold
Scale heaped up keratinized cells, flaky skin, irregular, thick or thin, dry or oily, varies in size
Lichenification rough, thickened epidermis due to persistent rubbing, itching, or skin irritation
Excoriation loss of epidermis, linear hollowed-out, crusted area (abrasion or scratch)
Fissure linear crack or break of epidermis, may be dry or moist
Erosion loss of part of epidermis, depressed, moist, glistening, follows rupture of vesicle or bulla
Ulcer loss of epidermis and dermis, concave, size varies
protocol for prevention and treatment of moisture or chemical skin damage gentle cleaning, moisturization, skin protectant
two fungal infections candidiasis and dermatophyte (tinea)
describe candidiasis satellite lesions, pruritis (key indicator) cheesy exudate, erythema with pustules, papules or plaques
candida intertrigo intensely red, confluent, macerated, rash extends just beyond the limits of the skin folds. satellite lesions. Burow soln, antifungal cream or powder
folluliculitis pustules pierced in the center by hair, can be fungal, bacterial or mechanical (staph a. is usual cause) tx: soap and water, improve hygiene
tinea fungal infection-name and symptoms r/t site of infection (capitus:head, Pedis:foot, Corporis:body, Cruris:groin) active border, scaly, red, slightly elevated. Topical antifungal.
Bacterial infections cellulitis, erythrasma, erysipelas, empetigo
erythrasma bacterial inf. (cornybacterium) in skin folds.chronic, mildly pruritic, reddish brown pigmentation, well defined borders, little scaling, NO satellite lesions. vigorous washing, clotrimatozole topical or erythromicin tid
bacteria that cause skin infections staph a. beta hymolytic strep, staph epidermis
impetigo highly contagious, staph. a. superficial vesiculopustular. r/t poor hygiene, malnutrition
nonbullous impetigo start with asymptomatic small vesicles that rupture soon, moist red base that crusts over (honey colored crust)
Created by: Beth Perry