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AP Biology

Photosynthesis/cellular respiration

Which part of a chloroplast absorbs solar energy, and which part forms a carbohydrate? Thylakoid membrane absorbs solar energy, and carbohydrate forms in stroma.
The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll... Is not the same as that of carotenoids. Approximates the action spectrum of photosynthesis. Explains why chlorophyll is a green pigment. Shows that some colors of light are absorbed more than others.
What does a photosystem contain? Pigments, a reaction center, and electron acceptors.
What are the names of parts a-e? a. Thylakoid membrane, b. Oxygen, c. Stroma, d. Calvin cycle reactions, e. Granum.
What part of the chloroplast absorbs sunlight? The thylakoid membranes absorb sunlight. They contain chlorophyll and other pigments.
What do light reactions use and produce? Light reactions use solar energy to split water and produce ATP and NADPH.
What two molecules are produced as a result of the noncyclic electron pathway of the light reactions? ATP and NADPH.
What part of the electromagnetic spectrum is utilized for photosynthesis during the light reactions? Visible light, specifically blue and red light.
What is the final acceptor of electrons during the noncyclic electron pathway? NADP+.
What is the function of the light reactions? To convert light energy into a usable form of chemical energy.
What do Calvin cycle reactions use and produce? Calvin cycle reactions use ATP and NADPH to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
What are three major steps of the Calvin cycle? Carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.
What substances can a plant cell make from G3P, the product of the Calvin cycle? Glucose, sucrose, starch, cellulose, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids.
What are the NADPH and ATP used for in the Calvin cycle? To convert 3PG to G3P.
The Calvin cycle reactions... Produce carbohydrate. Convert one form of chemical energy into a different form of chemical energy. Regenerate more RuBP. Use the products of the light reactions.
What energizes the electrons in the noncyclic pathway? Solar energy.
Which molecule is created with the synthase protein and which one is created by the reductase protein? ATP is created with the synthase protein and NADPH is created by the reductase protein.
What is reduced and what is oxidized in photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide is reduced to a carbohydrate and water is oxidized to oxygen in photosynthesis.
Chemiosmosis... Depends on complexes in the thylakoid membrane. Depends on an electrochemical gradient. Depends on a difference in H concentration between the thylakoid space and the stroma. Results in ATP formation.
What can the glucose formed from photosynthesis create? Starch, cellulose, lipids and oils, and proteins.
What is different about the location of glycolysis and fermentation compared to all other parts of cellular respiration? Glycolysis and fermentation happen in the cytoplasm while everything else happens in the mitochondria.
What does the inner membrane of the mitochondria form? The convoluted cristae.
Where are enzymes contained within the mitochondria and what do they do? They are contained in the matrix and oxidize glucose while NADH and ATP are produced during the citric acid cycle.
Why is the inner membrane of a mitochondria invaginated? To create greatest efficiency of ATP production.
What are the names of parts a-e? a. Cristae, b. Matrix, c. Outer membrane, d. Intermembrane space, e. Inner membrane.
Contrast the energy-investment step of glycolysis with the energy-harvesting steps. During the energy investment steps, ATP breakdown provides the phosphate groups to activate substrates. During the energy-harvesting steps, NADH and ATP are produced.
What happens to pyruvate when oxygen is not available in a cell? When it is available? Fermentation occurs when oxygen is not available. Pyruvate enters the mitochondria for further breakdown when oxygen is available.
What are the drawbacks and benefits of fermentation? Drawbacks: Most of the energy in a glucose molecule is unused and it results in a toxic end product. Benefits: The 2 ATP gained can be used as a burst of energy.
An acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle. Where does it come from? The acetyl CoA comes from the preparatory reaction.
The preparatory reaction... Begins with pyruvate and ends with acetyl CoA. Occurs in the mitochondria. Occurs after glycolysis and before the citric acid cycle.
What are the products of the citric acid cycle per glucose breakdown? Per glucose molecule, the citric acid cycle produces 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP.
The citric acid cycle... Produces ATP by substrate-level ATP synthesis. Occurs in the mitochondria. Is a metabolic pathway, as is glycolysis. Is also known as the Krebs cycle.
What is the greatest contributor of electrons to the electron transport chain? The citric acid cycle.
What is the metabolic process that produces the most ATP molecules? The electron transport chain.
The electron transport chain... Is located on the cristae. Produces more NADH than any metabolic pathway. Contains cytochrome molecules. Ends when oxygen accepts electrons.
What is reduced and what is oxidized in cellular respiration? Oxygen is reduced to water and glucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide in cellular respiration.
Approximately what percentage of energy available in glucose is converted to ATP in cellular respiration? About 39%.
How many ATP molecules are usually produced per NADH and how many NADH molecules are produced during the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose? 3 ATP molecules are usually produced per NADH and 10 NADH molecules are produced during the complete breakdown of one glucose molecule.
What is the name of the process that adds the third phosphate to an ADP molecule using the flow of hydrogen ions? Chemiosmosis.
How much ATP is produced per glucose molecule? 36 or 38 total ATP.
Created by: tyler14a