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Reproductive

First Aid: Reproductive

QuestionAnswer
What is the venous drainage for the testis and ovaries? Right gonadal vein drains into IVC and left drains into left renal vein (much like the right and left adrenals)
This ligament contains the ovarian vessels Suspensory ligament of ovaries
This ligament contains the uterine vessels. Transverse cervical (cardinal) ligament
This ligament contains the ovaries and the uterine tubes. Broad ligament
What is the autonomic innervation of the male sexual response? Point and Shoot!; erection is Parasympathetic, emission is Sympathetic
What are the stages of spermatogenesis, and what are the chromosomal makeup? Spermatogonium (diploid, 2N)--> Mitosis --> 1 spermatocyte (diploid, 4N) --> Meiosis 1 --> 2 spermatocyte (haploid, 2N) --> Meiosis 2 --> spermatid (haploid, 1N)
These cells are stimulated by LH and release testosterone. Leydig cells
These cells are stimulated by FSH and release ABP and inhibin. Sertoli cells
What is the function of androgen binding protein (ABP)? Ensure testosterone is high in semineferous tubule
What is the function of inhibin? Inhibits FSH release from anterior pituitary
This enzyme converts testosterone to DHT, a more potent form. 5alpha reductase; this enzyme is inhibited by finasteride used to treat BPH
This substance is involved in differentiation of the wolffian duct system into internal gonadal structures. Androgens
Where is testosterone and androstenedione converted into estrogen? In adipose tissue of both men and women and in granulosa cells of ovarian follicles.
This hormone stimulates growth of the follicle, endometrial proliferation, and triggers the LH surge for ovulation. estrogen
This hormone is produced in the corpus luteum and functions to stimulate endometrial secretion and spiral artery development. Progesterone
This hormone inhibits LH and FSH secretion. Progesterone
This enzyme converts cholesterol to androstenedione in theca cells and is activated by LH. Desmolase
Oocytes are arrested in this phase of meiosis I for years until ovulation. Prophase
Oocytes are arrested in this phase of meiosis II until the are fertilized. Metaphase
This hormone is produced by the syncytiotrophoblast of placenta, and maintains the corpus luteum until the placenta synthesizes its own estrogen and progesterone. hCG
What are the symptoms of menopause? HAVOC; Hot flashes, Atrophy of the Vagina, Osteoporosis, Coronary artery disease
What hormonal changes occur after menopause? Decreased estrogen, Markedly Increased FSH, increased LH (no surge), increased GNRH
Why is there an increased incidence of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women? Because estrogen increases HDL and reduces LDL
Incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts can result in this abnormality leading to infertility. Bicornuate uterus
Abnormal opening of urethra on inferior side of penis is caused by what failure? Failure of the urethral folds to close; Hypospadias
Abnormal opening of urethra on superior side of penis is due to what failure? Faulty positioning of genital tubercle; epispadias
Testicular atrophy, tall, long extremities, and gynecomastia. Diagnosis and genotype? Klinefelter's syndrome; XXY
In Klinefelter's syndrome, dysgenesis of seminiferous tubules has what effect on inhibin and FSH? Leads to reduced inhibin which leads to increased FSH
In Klinefelter's syndrome, abnormal leydig cells have what effect on testosterone, LH, and estrogen? Abnormal leydig cells leads to reduced testosterone --> increased LH --> increased estrogen
Short stature, ovarian dysgenesis (streak ovary), webbed neck. Diagnosis and genotype? Turner's syndrome; XO
Very tall male, severe acne, antisocial behavior. Diagnosis and genotype? Double Y males; XYY
Excessive and inappropriate exposure to androgenic steroids during early gestation will result in what condition? Female pseudohermaphrodite
Defect in androgen receptor would result in what syndrome? Androgen insensitivity syndrome; phenotypical female w/out uterus or uterine tubes (testes often in labia majora)
This deficiency results in ambiguous genitalia until puberty when increased testosterone causes masculinization. 5alpha reductase deficiency
Short stature, ovarian dysgenesis (streak ovary), webbed neck. Diagnosis and genotype? Turner's syndrome; XO
Very tall male, severe acne, antisocial behavior. Diagnosis and genotype? Double Y males; XYY
Excessive and inappropriate exposure to androgenic steroids during early gestation will result in what condition? Female pseudohermaphrodite
Defect in androgen receptor would result in what syndrome? Androgen insensitivity syndrome; phenotypical female w/out uterus or uterine tubes (testes often in labia majora)
This deficiency results in ambiguous genitalia until puberty when increased testosterone causes masculinization. 5alpha reductase deficiency
Pregnant presents with hypertension, proteinuria, and edema. Diagnosis? Pre-eclampsia
What is the difference between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia? pre-eclampsia is the triad of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema; eclampsia is the addition of seizures to these symptoms
What is the treatment of eclampsia? IV magnesium sulfate and diazepam
What is the key clinical feature distinguishing placenta previa from placenta abruptio? Both present with vaginal bleeding, however, usually painful with abruptio, and painless with previa
What is placenta accreta? Attachment of the placenta directly to myometrium; predisposed by prior C-section or inflammation
This condition is often esophageal/duodenal atresia causing inability to swallow amniotic fluid. polyhydramnios; also associated with anencephaly
Condition associated with renal agenesis and often leads to pulmonary hypoplasia Oligohydramnios; Potter's syndrome
Disordered epithelial growth on pap smear with epithelial cells with enlarged nuclei and cytoplasmic clearing. Diagnosis? Koilocytes; carcinoma in situ which can progress to invasive carcinoma
These variants of HPV are associated with cervical carcinoma. HPV 16 & 18
Endometrial glands in abnormal locations outside the uterus. Endometriosis
This syndrome usually precedes endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial hyperplasia
Multiple well demarcated benign tumors of smooth muscle in uterus. Estrogen sensitive. Leiomyoma; increased incidence in african americans
Bulky irregularly shaped tumor with necrosis and hemorrhage Leiomyosarcoma; not associated with leiomyoma
Patient presents with amenorrhea, obesity, and hirsutism. Diagnosis? Polycystic ovarian syndrome
What condition is associated with chocolate cysts? blood containing cysts from ovarian endometriosis
This germ cell tumor is associated with large hyperchromatic syncytiotrophoblastic cells that produce hCG. Choriocarcinoma
Equivalent to male seminoma. Dysgerminoma
Ovarian malignancy associated with increased AFP Yolk sac tumor
This is tumor is most often benign in women but malignant in men. Mature teratoma
Ovarian tumor that resembles bladder epithelium. Brenner tumor
Ovarian tumor consisting of bundles of spindle shaped fibroblast Ovarian fibroma
Small, mobile, firm breast mass common in women under 25. Fibroadenoma
Tumor of lactiferous ducts usually presenting with serous or bloody nipple discharge. Intraductal papilloma
Large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts with leaflike projections. Often benign but may be malignant. Cystosarcoma phyllodes
The single most important prognostic factor in breast malignancies. Lymph node involvement
Early breast malignancy without basement membrane penetration. Ductal carcinoma in situ
Firm, fibrous malignancy associated with worst prognosis. Invasive ductal carcinoma
Eczematous patches on nipple which suggest underlying carcinoma. Paget's disease of the breast
Diffuse breast pain and multiple lesions, often bilateral. Fibrocystic disease
Breast abscess, most commonly caused by staph aureus. Acute mastitis
Dysuria, frequency, urgency, lower back pain, in men. Often caused by bacteria when acute. Prostatitis
Sensitization of the prostate to the growth-promoting effects of DHT, associated with increased free PSA. BPH;
Associated with enlargement of the posterior lobe producing a hard nodule on digital rectal exam. Prostatic carcinoma; increase in total PSA, but decreased fraction of free PSA
This is often elevated in osteoblastic metastasis of prostatic carcinoma. serum alkaline phosphatase
Undescended testis. Cryptorchidism
Painless testicular enlargement commonly affecting males age 15-35. Seminoma
Painful testicular malignancy with poor prognosis. Embryonal carcinoma
Non-germ cell tumor associated with gynecomastia in men and precocious puberty in boys. Leydig cell tumor
Carcinoma in situ characterized by solitary crusty plaque, usually on the shaft of the penis or on the scrotum which. Bowen disease
Carcinoma in situ characterized by red velvety plaques usually involving the glans. Erythroplasia of Queyrat
5alpha reductase inhibitor Finasteride; treats BPH
Nonsterooidal competitive inhibitor of the androgens at the testosterone receptor. Flutamide; treats prostate carcinoma
Steroid synthesis inhibitor used to treat PCOS. Ketoconazole
GnRH analog with agonist properties when used in pulsatile fashion, antagonist when continuous. Leuprolide; treats infertility (pulsatile), prostate cancer (continuous), uterine fibroids
cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Sildenafil; treats erectile dysfunction
Partial agonist at estrogen receptor preventing inhibition of LH and FSH from pituitary. Clomiphene; infertility
Competitive inhibitor of progestrins at progesterone receptor used prevent implantation. Mifepristone
Do oral contraceptives increase or decrease risk for endometrial and ovarian cancer? decrease risk
Created by: rahjohnson