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Rocks and Minerals

Mineral Any naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystal structure.
Rock A solid made up of many minerals.
Organic Having to do with plants or animals. "Living"
Inorganic Not organic. "Non'living"
Definite Chemical Composition Each mineral has a particular chemical make up. Some are made from only one element while others are compounds or combination of elements.
Crystalline Structure A solid in which the atoms making up the solid are in an orderly and repeated pattern.
Color This is the least useful observation used to identify a mineral.
Luster This is how light is reflected off the surface of a mineral.
Types of Luster Metallic and nonmetallic
Streak The color of the powder residue left on an unglazed tile.
Cleavage The ability to break along flat surfaces.
Fracture The shape and texture of a mineral when it breaks.
Hardness The ability of a mineral to resist scratching. The Mohs scale is used for this.
Density The "heaviness" of a mineral. (Weight divided by the volume)
Solid The mineral has a definite volume and shape. It is neither a liquid or a gas.
Naturally Occurring A substance that is formed by processes that occure in the natural world.
Grain A particle of mineral or other rock that gives a rock its texture.
Texture The look or feel of a rocks surface, determined by the grain size, grain shape and grain pattern.
Origin Where and how a rock is formed.
Igneous Rock A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten (melted) rock at or below the surface of the earth.
Magma Molten rock that does not reach the surface of the earth.
Lava Molten rock that reaches the surface of the earth.
Extrusive Rock Igneous rock that forms from lava on the surface of the earth.
Intrusive Rock Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath the earth's surface.
Sedimentary Rock A type of rock that forms when particles of other rocks or remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
Sediment Small, solid pieces of material that comes from rocks or organisms (Living things)
Clastic Rock Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure. Examples are shale, sandstone and conglomerate.
Organic Rock Sedimentary rock that forms where the remains of organisms are deposited in think layers. Examples are coal and limestone.
Chemical Rock Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
Erosion The destructive process in which water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rocks.
Deposition The process by which sediment settles out of water or wind that is carrying it.
Compaction The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
Cementation The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
Metamorphic Rock A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
Foliated A term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
Rock Cycle A series of processes on the surface and inside the Earth that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
Humus Organic component of soil.
Created by: Mrs. Michel