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Vaporizers

Kevin's Vaporizer Lecture (SIUE Nurse Anesthesia)

QuestionAnswer
What is boiling point? The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
Name 2 ways in which gas concentration can be expressed. 1. partial pressure - absolute valve 2. volumes % - relative ratio
What is the heat of vaporization? Energy used to vaporize a molecule. Expressed as the number of calories to convert 1 g of liquid into a vapor.
What is specific heat? The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of substance by 1 degree C. Different value for different substances and illustrates how each substance requires different amounts of energy to increase temperature based on chemical properties.
Name 3 ways in which vaporizer designs can be classified. 1. concentration calibrated (vaporizer tailored to a specific agent) 2. vaporizer method (flow-over or injection) 3. temperature compensation method (mechanical thermocompensation or supplied heat)
Name two types of concentration calibrated vaporizers. 1. variable bypass 2. electronic
What are three characteristics of a variable bypass vaporizer? 1. Vapor pressures of anesthetic agents at room temp are reater than partial pressure required to produce anesthesia 2. A vaporizer dilutes saturated vapor 3. Can be accomplished by splitting gas flow passing through vaporizer
What is a splitting ratio? The ratio of bypass gas to gas going to the vaporizing chamber.
For variable bypass vaporizer, what happens to the concentration of HA as latent heat of vaporization occurs and the liquid agent cools? When latent heat of vaporization occurs, concentration of agent decreases because temp decreases.
How does a variable bypass vaporizer adjust to compensate for latent heat of vaporization? Modern vaporizers counteract this by increasing FGF to maintain concentration of agent.
Why is a Tec6 vaporizer known as a dual-circuit vaporizer? FGF travels through one circuit and does not interact with the vapor. In another circuit, the liquid agent is vaporized. The two circuits are then mixed together.
What temperature and vapor pressure is the liquid agent brought up to? 39°C and 1500 mmHg
Name an inhalational agent which is sometimes delivered via the injection method. Desflurane
How does mechanical thermocompensation work? The vaporizer automatically adjust the splitting ratio to account for latent heat of vaporization.
What mechanism ensures that only one vaporizer can be turned on at a time? The interlock system,
What should be done before filling a vaporizer (except for tec6 vaporizer)? Turn off the vaporizer.
What color code is used for isoflurane? purple
What color code is used for sevoflurane? yellow
What should the anesthetist do if the vaporizer is tilted more than 45 degrees? Take the vaporizer out of service, consult the user manual, call a service technician.
What can happen if a vaporizer is overfilled? liquid agent can enter the fresh gas line, delivering a leathal concentration of inhalational agent.
What can happen to the vaporizer if the check valve stops working correctly? Pumping effect due to intermittent back pressure.
Why does desflurane need a special vaporizer? Because its boiling point is almost at room temperature. If not controlled properly it would constitute an almost 100% concentration, causing an hypoxic mixture.
Created by: toppu2020