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all viruses are considered what parasites
viruses can only be seen with what kind of microscope electron
4 qualities of life composed of one or more cells, grow, use energy to maintain survival, reproduce
traits of life viruses show carry genetic info for reproduction, respond to changes in environment, can evolve and adapt to environment
nonliving traits viruses show lack cell membrane, no metabolism, don't grow, don't use own energy for reproduction,can only reproduce in host cell, no signs of life when outside cell, obligate intracellular parasites
broad based viruses viruses that can affect many different animals
viruses can only invade cells with the correct __________ on the cell membrane that the virus can connect to receptor
what method do viruses use to see which cell they can enter? lock and key
bacteriophages viruses that infect bacteria
docking viruses use proteins on cells outer coat to latch onto a cell membrane so it can enter
penetration goes through the cell membrane and into the host cytoplasm
biosynthesis making of the viral components
maturation virus parts assemble themselves
release cell breaks open killing it and releases virus to infect other cells
lytic infections virus that can harm the cell
lysogenic infection provirus that will replicate with other DNA when the cell divides but does not harm the cell
provirus virus that does not harm cell
how can a lysogenic virus become lytic when something signals it and new viruses are created and the cell bursts releasing it
retroviruses use RNA instead of DNA. contain a code that produces an enzyme that converts the RNA into DNA
three ways viruses go from human to human through the air or contact with infected surfaces, direct physical contact, exposure to blood of an infected person.
do antibiotics work on viruses? no
how does a vaccine work inject a harmless virus into body which will cause immune system t recognize invader and develop antibodies to recognize and kill it if encountered again
who developed the first vaccine? Edward Jenner
can vaccines cure viral infections? no they can only help prevent them
interferon protein produced by cells in your body when exposed to a virus
what do interferons do interfere with the ability of a virus to enter the cell and replicate
antiviral drugs drugs used to treat viral infections. do not harm virus, just greatly slow down their reproduction inside cells
viral therapy when a gene is inserted into the cells of a person who does not have that gene
example of viral therapy insulin for diabetes
how do scientists make a virus for gene therapy? remove infectious DNA and insert a gene
Created by: edenbreslauer