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Comparative Anatomy

Cat Appendicular, Axial, and Skull Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Neural Arch The dorsal part of the vertebrae forming the dorsal roof of the neural canal
Neural Canal Opening running through the vertebrae where the spinal cord is
Transverse Process processes on either lateral side of the vertebrae where muscles attach
Articular Facets Where the vertebrae articulate with one another
Atlas The very first cervical vertebrae, articulating with the skull - missing the centrum, the neural spine, rib demifaucets
Centrum Depression ventral to the neural canal
Neural Spine Projection off of the neural arch
Odontoid Process Posterior projection off the axis vertebrae
Axis Second cervical vertebrae, articulating with the atlas
Cervical Vertebrae Vertebrae extending from the atlas and axis at the skull to the pectoral girdle and the beginning of the thoracic vertebrae
Demifacets Found in the thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae Vertebrae extending from the pectoral girdle where they articulate with the cervical vertebrae to the lumbar vertebrae, which lack the large neural spines
Lumbar Vertebrae Vertebrae extending from the thoracic vertebrae to the pelvic girdle and the sacrum
Caudal Vertebrae Vertebrae extending from the sacrum in the pelvic girdle to the end
Ribs Projections off the thoracic vertebrae that extend ventrally and meet on the ventral midline of the body
Sacrum Singular bone of fused vertebrae creating the support for the pelvic girdle
Sternabrae The modified bones that make up the body of the sternum
Manubrium Anterior portion of the sternum that is slightly keeled
Xiphisternum Posterior portion of the sternum that hosts a cartilaginous projection
Premaxilla Anterior most bone of the skull
Frontal dorsal bone of the skull extending from the nasal plates, in between the orbits, to the parietal bone
Maxilla Bone of skull lateral to the premaxilla and the nasal plates
Palatine Process of Maxilla The ventral part of the maxilla bone on the ventral part of the skull
Parietal Dorsal, but posterior bone of the skull that is posterior to the frontal bone but dorsal to the occipital condyle
External Nares Anterior most opening, dorsal to the premaxilla
Zygomatic Arch Projection beginning off the maxilla that extends back to the parietal bone laterally, enclosing the orbit laterally
Jugal Projection off the zygomatic arch that extends dorsally to enclose the orbit
Nasal Bones dorsal to the premaxilla, posterior to the external nares
Temporal Bone Lateral bones, lateral and ventral to the parietal bones
Temporal Fenestra Opening posterior to the orbital, enclosed by the zygomatic arch
Lacrimal Small lateral bone at the anterior end of the orbital
Tympanic Bulla Large, posterior projections on the ventral side of the skull
Palatine Posterior to the palatine process of the maxilla, ventral side of the skull
External Auditory Meatus Lateral, but posteriorly positioned opening just dorsal to the tympanic bulla
Occipital Bone on the posterior wall of the skull
Occipital Condyle Projections off the occipital on the posterior wall of the skull
Presphenoid Most medial bone on the ventral side of the skull, between the orbitals
Basisphenoid Medial bone that is posterior to the presphenoid
Dentary Main bone of the mandible
Intermandibular Symphysis The connection, medially, in the mandible where the dentary bones meet
Coronoid Process Most dorsal projection of the dentary, posterior positioning, to articulate the manidble with the skull
Angular Process Most posterior projection of the dentary, in a ventral position
Condyloid Process Process off the dentary ventral to the coronoid process but dorsal to the angular process that extends medially
Mandibular Foramen The medial view of the dentary, posterior canal
Mental Foramina Lateral view of the dentary, anterior canals ventral and posterior to canines
Body of Hyoid Basihoid, connects all the hyoid projections
Anterior Process of the Hyoid Ceratoid, epihoid, and stylohoid - anterior projection from the basihyoid of hyoid
Posterior Process of the Hyoid Thyrohoid, posterior process
Incisor Anterior most teeth
Canine Large teeth just posterior to the incisors
Premolar Flat teeth just posterior to the canines - very small
Molar Flat, large teeth just posterior to the premolars
Clavicle Very small bones posterior to the pectoral girdle
Glenoid Fossa Medial view of the scapula, the very ventral portion, anteriorly positioned
Coracoid Process Medial view of the scapula, the very ventral portion, extending ventral and posteriorly
Subscapular Fossa Medial view of the scapula, extending from dorsal to ventral depression
Spine Lateral view, projection extending from dorsal to ventral
Supraspinous Fossa Portion of the lateral view of the scapula, dorsal to the spine
Infraspinous Fossa Portion of the lateral view of the scapula, ventral to the spine
Head of Humerus Medial most part of the humerus, less separation between processes than the distal end
Olecranon Fossa The depression on the posterior, distal side of the humerus
Greater Tuberosities The larger part of the head of the humerus
Lesser Tuberosities The smaller part of the head of the humerus
Medial Epicondyles The larger of the two distal projections of the humerus
Lateral Epicondyles The smaller of the two distal projections of the humerus
Ulna Articulates with the olecranon fossa of the humerus
Olecranon Process The medial end of the ulna projection
Semilunar Notch A half circular notch on the medial end of the ulna that articulates with the humerus' olecranon fossa
Styloid Process of Ulna A thin, pointed process off the distal end of the ulna
Radius The forelimb bone that does not articulate with the humerus
Head of Radius The smaller, medial end of the radius
Styloid Process of Radius A short, small projection off the distal end of the radius
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Pubis The anterior, ventral part of the innominate bone
Ischium Tuberosity The posterior projection of the innominate bone
Ischial Tuberosity
Ilium Dorsal projection of the innominate bone
Pubic Symphysis The medial connection between the pubis bones of the innominate bone
Obturator Foramen The large opening in the innominate bone
Acetabulum The depression on the lateral side of the innominate bone that articulates with the femur
Head of Femur Medial part of the femur that articulates with the innominate bone
Neck of Femur Part of the medial femur that articulates the head of the femur to the body
Greater Trochanter of Femur The dorsal projection off the medial end of the femur, lateral from the head
Medial Condyle of Femur The distal end of the femur the medial projection
Lateral Condyle of Femur The distal end of the femur the lateral projection
Patella The anterior projection from the distal end of the femur
Tibia The largest hindlimb bone articulating with the femur
Tibial Crest The anterior view of the tibia, crest from medial to distal
Tibial Tuberosity The anterior most projection off the head of the tibia
Medial Malleolus Projection off the distal end of the tibia
Fibula Smaller hind limb bone
Head of Fibula Medial end of the fibula that articulates with the tibia
Lateral Malleolus Projection off the distal end of the fibula
Calcaneus The posterior most projection of the foot
Talus The bone articulating with the tibia, the ankle
Created by: LionsandGiants