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Chapter 5

Learning

QuestionAnswer
learning the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
classical contitioning the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimilis comes to be elicited by a different, formaly neutral, stimulus
unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way
unconditioned response a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
conditioned stimulus an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
conditioned response after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a condtitioned simulus is presented
intermittent pairing pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learing trials
desensitization therapy a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object
preparedness a biological readiness to learn certain associations because of their survival advantages
conditioned taste aversion conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
operant conditioning the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments
operant behaviors behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or aviod something unpleasant
reinforcers a stimuli that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
punishers stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
law of effect (principle of reinforcement) Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
Skinner box a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the available responses and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
shaping reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
positive reinforcers events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
negative reinforcers events whose reduction or temination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
punishment any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
avoidance training learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasent, such as punishment
learned helplessness failure to take steps to aviod or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
biofeedback a technique that ises monitoring devices to provide precise informatioin about internal physiological process, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions
neurofeedback a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity
contingency a reliable "if-than" relationship between two events, such as a CS and a US
blocking a process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously
Created by: rcctutor