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SLS Bio11 Genetics

SLS Bio11 Genetics HD.

TermDefinition
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Codominance a relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent
Dihybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes.
Dominant Allele An allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele
Genotype the genetic structure of an individual organism.
Heterozygous refers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
Homozygous having the two genes at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes identical for one or more loci
Monohybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous to a specified gene.
Multiple Allele Three or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Punnett Square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
Recessive Allele an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Sex Chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism
Sex-linked trait A trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent
Test cross a genetic cross between a homozygous recessive individual and a corresponding suspected heterozygote to determine the genotype of the latter.
Apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth
Cell cycle a series of events that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides
Centriole a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells
Centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division
Chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed
Chromosome a structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Crossing-over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
Cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Diploid (2n) chromosome number Having two sets of chromosomes or double the haploid number of chromosomes in the germ cell. The diploid number, 46 in humans, is the normal chromosome complement of an organism's somatic cells.
Gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Haploid (n) chromosome number 46
Homologous Chromosomes Are similiar but not identical. Each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
Nondisjunction the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division
Somatic cell any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.
Created by: hdoyle123