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What is the major extracellular fluid cation? Sodium
What is the primary regulator of sodium? Kidneys
Water balance affects what causing an effect on BP? Blood volume
What is chloride's function? Gastric acidity
A salt that dissolves in H2O and dissociates and conducts electricity is what? Electrolyte
The main cation intracellular fluid is what? Potassium
What is the most abundant mineral in the body? Calcium
What hormone regulates calcium? Vitamin D
In what 3 ways is calcium regulated? intestine: absorbs calcium bone: releases calcium kidney: excretes calcium
What occurs when calcium is too low? Osteoblasts build new bone from extra calcium in the blood
What are the main sources of calcium? Milk, milk products, green leafy vegetables, fortified OJ
Osteoporosis is the deficiency of what mineral? Calcium
What are the functions of magnesium? enzyme action protein synthesis estrogen metabolism makes ATP bone mineralization smooth muscle relaxer involves immune system
What mineral is involved in linking of protein? Sulfer
Name the individual B vitamins Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Biotin Pantothenic acid Pyroxidine Folate Colabalmin Choline
Which vitamins are involved in the Krebs cycle? Thiamin Riboflavin Folate
Name 3 characteristics of water soluble vitamins? Individual units, no links no energy Coenzyme
Which water soluble vitamin is involved in the metabolism of glucose, fat, and alcohol? Niacin
The function of biotin is? energy producing pathways
What is required for ACoA to be made? Pantothenic acid
The active form of vitamin B5 is? P5P
Pyridoxine is active in what? Transamination (transfer of amino groups)
Microcytic anemia is a deficiency of what B vitamin? B6 Pyridoxine
Without which vitamin is folate trapped in the cell? B12 Cobalamin
What are the functions of folate? part of the coenzyme THF and DHF involved in DNA synthesis involved in Krebs cycle involved in B12 metabolism involved in gene silencing
What is the RDA for folate for pregnant women? Average people? 800 mcg and 400 mcg minimally
What sources can folate be found? green leafy vegetables, legumes, oranges, OJ
What is the synthetic form of B12? Cyanocobalamin
Pernicious anemia is a deficiency of what vitamin? Cobalamin
What sources is cobalamin found? all animal products and soy
Name the vitamins/minerals involved in cell differentiation. B12 Vitamin A B7
What is the name of Vitamin C? Ascrobic acid
What is the function of Vitamin C? Antioxidant Increases iron absorption Collagen formation
Vitamin A plant food is converted into what? B carotene
What are the three clinical application involving vitamin D? Cancer prevention helps decrease inflammation involved in regulation of the immune system
What vitamin prevents the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids? Vitamin E
What vitamin causes blood clotting? Vitamin K
What is an emulsifier? enzyme that breaks down fat
Where does digestion begin? Mouth
Where does absorption begin? Small intestine
Where is fat digested? Small intestine
Protein is digested in which organ? Stomach
Metabolism of glycolysis occurs where in the cell? Cytosol
What is only required in glycolysis? Carbs
One glucose molecule is broken down into what? 2 pyruvate molecules
Metabolism of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain occurs where in the cell? Mitochondria
How many ATPs does 1 glucose molecule produce? 36 or 38 ATPs
What increases right after eating? Lipoprotein Lipase and Insulin activity
Hormone sensitive lipase activity and epinephrine increases after how many hours of no food? Fast 8-12 hours
Prolonged fast includes which of the following? Gluconeogenesis Ketone body formation HSL increase epinephrine increase
Alcohol yields how many calories? 7
What happens when too much alcohol is consume? Fatty acids accumulate then fibrosis then cirrhosis
Two acetyl CoA combines via condensation to create? Acetoacetate
Ketone formation occurs when? Not eating enough carbs
The functions of iron are what? Part of hemoglobin in RBSs Part of myoglobin in muscle
What is the factor that increases iron absorption? HCL
What is the factor that decreases iron absorption? Calcium
What are the functions of zinc? Wound healing synthesis of retina production of sperm antioxidant that works with vitamin A
What trace mineral is part of the hormone T3 and T4 Iodine
What is the deficiency of iodine? Goiter
Selenium is an antioxidant that works with what vitamin? Vitamin E
What enzyme is selenium apart of? Glutathione
What is the number one food source for selenium? Brazilian nuts