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Science 10 Unit 1

Science ch.1-4

TermDefinition
Ecosystem All the living things in an area are interacting with each other and nonliving things
Producers Plants capture energy from the sun
Primary Consumers Herbivores
Secondary Consumers Carnivores
Food Chains Transfer of energy and materials between living things
Detritivores Organisms that eat on dead things, allowing nutrients to be recycled;worms
Carrying capacity Food Supply, Competition, Predators affect maximum number of species it can support
interspecific Animals competing against different animals
Intraspecific Animals competing against same animals
High Population Density Causes stress and spreads disease and parasites
Rain forests and wetlands High plant productivity but soil quickly erodes
Deserts Lots of sunlight and little water
Percent lost per link in food chain 90% of energy is lost so humans should eat plants
Monoculture Growing only one kind of crop and are more vulnerable to pests
Earth and energy Energy from sun is constantly recieved
Earth and Matter Earth needs to recycle nutrients for ecosystems to survive
Living Tissues Made of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, and nitrogen
Photosynthesis Plants take in carbon dioxide from air and combine it with water to make carbohydrates which store energy from sun. Oxygen is the byproduct from this
Cellular Respiration The opposite of photosynthesis. Makes carbon dioxide by living things burning carbohydrates.
Fossil Fuels From the Carboniferous Period (300 million years ago) where plant material was trapped under sediment and then dug up to make coal and oil. This releases carbon into the air and has disrupted the carbon cycle.
Ocean and Lakes carbon cycle role Phytoplankton make half of the oxygen from photosynthesis. Organisms with shells store carbon in calcium form.
Carbon in water Carbon dioxide dissolves in water so too much is harmful to aquatic ecosystems and makes water acidic.
Nitrogen makes up 75% of atmosphere and must be fixed by nitrogen fixing bacteria into ammonium or nitrate. Fertilizer uses it and too much makes soil acidic and water eutrophoric
Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixing bacteria found in the roots of legumes, lightning, and Cyanobacteria
Eutrophorification The overgrowth of algae caused by too much nitrogen in water. Prevents sunlight from reaching deep water. When the algae die the bacteria that decomposes it kills other animals
Nitrogen and fossil fuels Fossil fuels release nitrogen oxides when burned. This makes acid rain that damages plants and water and the animals relying on those things.
Biodiversity When there are a variety of different species within an ecosystem
Soil Made of small rocks, decomposing plant and animals. Lots of rain makes forest, little rain makes grassland and no rain makes deserts.
Primary succession The process of when a bare rock and no soil landscape turns into one that has plant and animal life
Pioneer organisms Colonize on landscapes with little to no soil. Lichens, fungi, algae
Climax community A community where the maximum animal and plant life inhabit the area
Secondary succession A process caused by fire or flooding. When there is only soil and turns into a climax community.
Bog land Rich in peat, a partially decomposed plant material, enriches garden soil and can be used as soil. They prevent flooding and erosion also filters water
The Tragedy of commons The tendency of shared resources to be abused due to selfishness.
Ecological Footprint Space for living+Land and water used to produce resources+land and water used to dispose of waste.
Paradigm a way of thinking about the world shared by a community (ex. Unlimited growth)
phytoremediation plants that take up pollutants as they grow
Created by: 100000584816859