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# cumulative review

Term | Definition |
---|---|

biosphere | the global sum of all ecosystems. |

cryosphere | the frozen water part of the earth system |

geosphere | any of the almost spherical concentric regions of matter that makeup the earth and its atmosphere |

magnetic field | the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials |

nuclear fission | the main process generating nuclear energy |

radiant energy | the energy of electromagnetic waves |

angular momentum | the rotational analog of linear momentum |

barycenter | the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other. |

conservation of momentum | a conservation law stating that the total linear momentum of a closed system remains constant through time. |

eccentricity | measure of how an orbit has an eccentricity of zero. |

ellipse | a curve on a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve |

escape velocity | the lowest velocity that a body must have in order to escape the gravitational attraction of a particular planet or other object. |

nutation | a periodic variation in the precession of the earth's axis |

Kepler's laws of motion | three laws devised by Kepler to define the mechanics of planetary motion. |

precession | a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. |

synchronous rotation | the result of tidal forces that over time slow the rotation of the smaller body until it is synchronized with its period of revolution around the larger body. |

universal law of gravitation | that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. |

Brahe | designed and built instruments. invented the angle measuring device |

Copernicus | convinced that earth is a planet just like the other five known at the time. |

Kepler | discovered that the orbit of mars around the sun is not a perfect circle. |

Galileo | used telescope to view the universe. discovered four moons orbiting Jupiter, planets are circular disks, Venus phases, moon's surface and sunspots. |