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Unit 1

PathoPharm I

Controlled Substance I Heroin, LSD
Controlled Substance II Morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine
Controlled Substance III Codeine, anabolic steroids, hydrocodone, Percocet
Controlled Substance IV Diazepam
Controlled Substance V OTC cough meds with codeine
Parts of drug approval Discovery, Lab Studies, Animal studies, human trials, approval
Pure Food and Drug Act Regulates labeling
Shirley Amendment Banned false claims about substance effects
Food Drug and Cosmetics Act Must be safe and efficient
Five rights Right patient, medication, dose, route, time
Pharmacodynamic What the drug does to the body
Pharmacokinetic What the body does to the drug (how the body handles the drug)
Enteral Route Sublingual, Buccal, OGT/NGT
Topical Route Skin, inhalants, transdermal, eyes/ears
Parental route Intradermal, Subcutaneous, IM, IV
Pharmacokinetics Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
Absorption How the drug is moved into the blood stream from the site of administration
Distribution How much drug is moved into various body tissues
Metabolism How drug is altered into active and inactive parts
Excretion How much of the drug is removed from the body in a specific amount of time
Augmentation Addition of another class of medication to supplement the effectiveness of the primary medication
Therapeutic effect The desired or intended effect of a particular medication
Half-Life Time is takes for the dose amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50%
Steady state Means that plasma drug concentration remains relative constant between doses because excretion equals ingestion (equilibrium occurs ~ 5 half-lives of any given drug)
First Pass Elimination of Drug Metabolism in liver
Pharmacodynamics Therapeutic index, potency, cellular receptors
Category A FDA Adequate/well-controlled studies; failed to show risk to fetus
Category B FDA No adequate/well-controlled studies; Animal reproduction studies failed to show risk
Category C FDA No adequate/well-controlled studies; animal reproduction show risk but benefits may outweigh risks
Category D FDA Adverse reaction data from investigational studies show positive evidence of risk, but benefits may still outweigh risks
Category X FDA Studies in animals/humans or investigational studies show fetal abnormalities/positive evidence and risks do not outweigh benefits
Route Faster to Slower IV, IM SubQ, Intradermal
Onset in <5 minutes Inhalant (MDI), Local topical effect, sublingual
Onset 5-15 minutes Nebulizer (into lungs)
Onset 15-30 minutes Rectal, IM
Onset 30-60 minutes Oral (tablet/liquid), Topical systemic effect
First order Neurons Detect sensation
Second order neurons In spinal cord; transmit message to brain; spinal nerve root to medulla and crosses over to thalamus
Third order neurons In brain; primary somatosensory and association cortex
Primary somatosensory in brain Identifies sensation
Association cortex in brain Relates sensation to memories or other sensations
Endogenous Body produces (ex: insulin)
A and C Two types of nerve fibers stimulated
A Fibers Myelin sheath, large size, conducts fast, inhibits pain, SHARP & WELL-LOCALIZED (bee sting)
C Fibers Small, conduct slowly, facilitate pain transmission, DULL & NON-LOCALIZED (cardiac pain)
Dorsal Horn Point of spinal cord entry and "GATE" location
T cells Control gate threshold
Endogenous Neurotransmitters Enkenphalins and Endorphins (fight pain by closing gate)
Hyperpathia Continued stimulation causes pain
Paresthesias Spontaneous, unpleasant sensations ("growing pains")
Dysesthesia Distortions of somesthetic sensations
Hypalgesia Reduced pain sensation
Analgesia Absence of pain
Allodynia Pain after non-noxious stimulus - something pleasant becomes unpleasant (wool sweater)
Visceral pain Appendicitis
Referred pain Left arm pain (actually heart pain)
Superficial pain Scraped knee
Causes of Neuropathic pain Pressure on nerve, physical/chemical injury to nerve, infection of nerve. Ischemic, inflammation
Location of Opioid Receptors CNS, periphery nerves, GI tract
T4 @ nipple line
T10 @ umbilicus
Cervical Innervates hand
Sacral Innervates groin and pinky toe
Bradykinin, Histamine, K, Prostaglandins, Serotonin Released with tissue injury
Narcotic W/Drawal Symptoms Increases (anxiety, runny nose, n&v, cramps, diarrhea, irritable)
Hydrolysis Rxn in which large molecules broken into smaller ones (ex: chemical digestion)
Synthesis Simple molecules combine to form complex molecules
Enzymes Organic catalysts made of protein
Substrate Molecules upon which an enzyme acts
Enzyme-Substrate Lock and Key (one specific enzyme fits to only one substrate)
RBCS Only mature cells w/o nucleus
Mucus Keeps body from drying out
Viscous Mucus Thick components that trap microbes
Sweat, tears, saliva Enzyme lysozymes that break down cell walls of some bacteria
Phagocyte Leukocytes that ingest and destroy pathogens by engulfing them; can't destroy viruses
Macrophage big eater developed from monocyte
Pus Collection of dead WBCs and fluids
Release of Histamines Causes redness, swelling, pain, heat
Complement Group of proteins that attach to pathogens, damage PM, and attract phagocytes
Interferons protect from viruses by producing antiviral proteins that disrupt replication
Lymphatic System Functions by maintaining homeostasis, absorbs fat, defends against disease
Lymphatic Organs Tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, Peyer's patch on small intestine, bone marrow
Tongue and Tonsils Fights bacteria and other harmful materials that enters your nose and mouth
Lymph nodes Small tissue mass that holds lymphocytes; filters lymph
Liver/Spleen Detect and respond to foreign substances in bloods, destroys worn-out RBCs
Thymus Gland Location where lymphocytes mature and become cells that fight specific pathogens
Thymus Gland Size More prominent in nwb and young children; decreases in size after puberty
Allergens Cause mast cells to release histamines
Autoimmune diseases Makes mistake and attacks body's own cells
Types of Autoimmune Disease Type I Diabetes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Myasthenia gravis, Multiple sclerosis
Type I Diabetes Attacks insulin producing cells
Rheumatoid Arthritis CT in joints
Myasthenia Gravis Neuromuscular junctions
Multiple sclerosis Neurons in brain and spinal cord
Immunodeficiency Disease Immune system fails to develop normally or the immune system is destroyed
SCIDS Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Created by: TedMed