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Comparative Anatomy

Mudpuppy Appendicular, Axial, and Skull Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Neural Spine Pointed process extending dorsally off of the neural arch on the trunk and caudal vertebrae
Neural Arch Found on all the vertebrae, making the roof of the vertebrae on the dorsal side
Centrum The center of the vertebrae, the base which the neural and hemal arches, and neural and hemal spines extend off of
Ribs Extensions laterally off of the trunk vertebrae
Hemal Arch Found on all the vertebrae, making the floor of the vertebrae on the ventral side
Hemal Spine Pointed process extending ventrally off of the hemal arch on the caudal vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae A singular vertebrae connecting the trunk vertebrae to the skull. Called the Atlas, articulates with the occipital condyles
Trunk Vertebrae ~17 trunk vertebrae with neural spines and ribs that extend from the atlas to the pelvic girdle where the sacral vertebrae are
Sacral Vertebrae Single vertebrae attached to the pelvic limbs with modified ribs. Attached to the trunk vertebrae and the caudal vertebrae
Caudal Vertebrae Vertebrae attached to the sacral vertebrae with neural spines and hemal spines
Premaxilla V-shaped at the anterior most portion of the skull, forming the upper jaw with teeth
Frontal Bone of skull that extends from the premaxilla, back to the parietal, forming the dorsal part of the eye orbit
Parietal Most posterior dorsal bone, attached to the frontal
Quadrate Posterior to the eye orbit and anterior to the squamosal
Vomer Tooth-bearing bone posterior to the premaxilla but anterior on the skull
Pterygoid Tooth-bearing bone posterior to the vomer, medial in the skull, but on the ventral sides
Parasphenoid The palate bone on the ventral side of the skull, making up the base of it
Dentary Lateral bone making up the lower jaw
Exoccipital Paired on the posterior wall of the skull, hosting the occipital condyles
Foramen Magnum Large opening in medial positioning on the posterior wall of the skull
Squamosal Lateral to the parietal bone, articulating with the quadrate bone
Otic Region EAR REGION FUCK EVERYTHING
Basibranchial Arch connecting the hypohyal to the rest of the branchials
Ceratobranchial Branches off of the basibrancial in a posterior direction
Epibranchial Branches off of the ceratobranchial in a posterior direction
Hypohyal The joining of the ceratohyal, attaches to the basibranchial, forms the hyoid arch in the anterior position
Ceratohyal Branches off the hypohyal, makes up the hyoid arch in the anterior position
Coracoid Cartilage Broad plates of cartilage that extend medially and over lap
Procoracoid Cartilage A lateral process that extends anterior from the coracoid
Scapula Ossified and extends dorsally, lateral to the cartilages of the coracoid and procoracoid
Suprascapular Cartilage A distal projection of cartilage from the scapula
Humerus Bone from scapula to the radius and ulna
Radius The medial bone that is distal to the humerus
Ulna The lateral bone that is distal to the humerus
Carpals Make up the "wrist" joint area
Metacarpals
Phalanges Most distal part of the limb
Pubis Cartilage Projection that goes anterior, makes up the puboischiadic plate
Ischium Bone Extends posterior, joined to the pubis cartilage, makes up the puboischiadic plate
Ilium Extend dorsally from the puboischiadic plate, fuse with the modified ribs of the sacral vertebrae
Acetabulum A depression at the site of articulation for the hind limbs to the pelvic girdle
Femur Bone extending from acetabulum to the tibia and fibula
Tibia The medial bone attached to the femur
Fibula The lateral bone attached to the femur
Tarsals "Ankle" bones attached to Tibia and Fibula
Metatarsals
Phalanges Most distal part of the hind limb
Created by: LionsandGiants