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Bio-101-700, Exam 3

AACC Bio-101-700 Professor Dempster

Why is sexual reproduction advantageous Gives a variation, heritable traits, unique combination of genes, production of offspring that are alike
What is the purpose of cell division Cells divide to duplicate selves, repair of tissue damage, growth of organs, division of zygote
How many genes does a prokaryote have Approximately 3,000
How is DNA arranged in Prokaryotic cells Circular
What are sister chromatids Two identical copies of DNA molecules held together by cohesions
What is Haploid and # of chromosomes A cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes. 1 set of 23 chromosomes.
What is diploid and # of chromosomes A cell that consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, 46 chromosomes
What are the stages of Mitosis Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
What is Interphase and what does it look like Chromosomes condense and begin to duplicate, and nucleoli is making proteins. Intermission, where everything is gathered together.
What is Prophase and what does it look like Chromatin fibers continue to condense for duplication. Nucleoli disappears. Mitotic spindle begins to form (Microtubules grow out of centrosomes and begin to move away from each other) (The chromatin looks darker)
What is Prometaphase and what does it look like Nuclear envelope disappears. Spindle well formed: Microtubules elongate to reach sister chromosomes.kinetochore (spindle may attach to)
What is Metaphase and what does it look like Spindle completely formed. poles at opposite ends. Centromeres align in center. (belt is lined up in the center)
What is Anaphase and what does it look like sister chromatids separate. Kinetochores' proteins move chromatids towards poles via ATP. Chromatids reach opposite poles.
What is Telophase and what does it look like Cell elongation continues. Nuclear membrane begins to form around chromosomes. Nuclei appear. Spindle disappears. Cytokineses occur where cytoplasm is divided amongst two cells (cleavage)
What is Meiosis To form gametes (sex cells(sperm and eggs))
What are two gametes Sex cells. Egg and sperm
What is Meiosis 1 Very similar to Mitosis and Meiosis II, except: Chromosomes go in pairs, specifically in Anaphase instead of separating: anaphase "X" goes together
What is the longest stage of meiosis Prophase 1 (Puberty)
What is the number of daughter cells after meiosis II 4
Density-dependent inhibition/growth factors of density (ex: wound: cell divides to repair damaged tissue until touches the other side). Starts with a breach, signals the growth factors, calculates how much is needed, stops when it is done.
When do checkpoints occur in the cell cycle G1, G2, and M phase
How many checkpoints are there in the cell cycle 3
What is signaling division in regards to the cell cycle G1 checkpoint
What is the percentage of time a cell divides 10%
What organs does cell division occur in Intestines, Skin, Liver, tissue. Spinal cells DO NOT divide or repair once damaged.
What is a tumor suppressor gene p53
How can tumors form Cell layers build up on top of each other when "not told" to stop. Lack density dependent inhibition. defective cell control cycles. divide continuously without restriction until uses up all nutrition.
What is the difference between malignant tumors vs. benign tumors Benign: Most occur in older people/animals. Genes stop functioning properly Malignant: Cancer (excessive cell division). spread to organs and interrupt proper functioning. can separate from tumor and secrete signal to blood vessels to grow toward tumor.
What is the difference between chemotherapy vs. radiation as cancer treatments Radiation therapy:radiation to kill cancerous cells by damaging cancerous DNA more than normal cell DNA Chemotherapy:Drugs disrupt cell cycle. Freezes mitotic spindle or prevents spindle from forming.
What is chiasma Where the crossing over occurs (sites of crossing over)
When does chiasma occur early in Prophase 1
What is crossing over traits are exchanged between maternal and paternal during synapsis
Mutations as genetic diversity Mutations are ways for genetic material to vary, which leads to more genetic options. WIDEN THE GENE POOL, DIVERSITY
What is a Karyotype Picture of the chromosomes lined up in pairs and ordered longest to shortest. used to look for abnormalities or mutations.
What do copies of chromosomes have to do with Down syndrome Down syndrome has 3 copies of #21 (Called Trisomy 21), and has 47 chromosomes instead of 46
What is deletion of chromosomes and what disorders occurs because of deletion or chromosomes When part of a chromosome is missing, (ex: Cri du chat)
Who is the father of inheritance Gregor Mendel
What is the Law of Segregation allele pairs separate during the production of gametes (egg and sperm unite and each bring one allele for each trait =2)
What is homozygous dominant/recessive dominant: it has two alike alleles (RR or rr), recessive: different alleles are paired together (Rr)
What is heterozygous Heterozygous refers to having two different alleles for a single trait.
What is the difference between phenotype vs genotype Phenotype: Physical characteristics (what the allele shows)(interaction between genotype and environment), Known Genotype: genetic makeup (the actual alleles (ie aa), Unknown
What does the first part of the Sutton-Boveri Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance say Chromosomes come in pairs. One chromosome comes from the mother and one from the father. (Homologous pairs)
What does the second part of the Sutton-Boveri Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance say Synapses is the pairing of the homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes. These pairs separate into different daughter cells during meiosis.
What is genetic linkage and how does it affect the assortment of alleles Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes on same chromosome tend to stay together.
How does physical distance compare to recombination It is harder for the body to separate alleles that are closer together. The chance that any two genes on a chromosome will recombine is proportional to the physical distance between them.
What is Polygenic inheritance Effect of two or more genes on single phenotypic trait
What is Pleiotropy One gene that affects many different characteristics (ex: sickle-cell disease)
Inherited Disorders: Recessive and Dominant Most inherited disorders are recessive/hidden (ex: Tay-Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis). Dominant are less common because the person wold show the disorder. (ex: Huntington's is dormant for a while, Hypercholesterolemia)
What is incomplete dominance Three or more genes affect one thing
What are the different blood types A, B, O, AB A=Carbohydrate A, B=Carbohydrate B, O=No carbohydrate, AB=both carbohydrate A and B
What are the compatibilities of blood types A->A, O, AB B-> B, O, AB O-> O (Goes to everything) AB-> AB (Can receive everything)
Created by: StaciSisson