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Comparative Anatomy

Shark Appendicular, Axial, and Skull Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Neural Spine The dorsal extension if the neural arch of caudal vertebrae that forms a point, not an arch - homologous to the neural spine in the mudpuppy and the alligator, homologous to the neural spine of all vertebrae in the cat.
Neural Arch The dorsal part of the trunk vertebrae that ends in an arch, not a spine. Dorsal side of the neural canal - homologous to the neural arch in the mudpuppy + the alligator, and to the neural arch in the vertebrae in the cat
Centrum Concave portion of the vertebrae that hosts the remaining of the notochord, centered in the caudal vertebra but ventral in the trunk vertebrae - homologous to the centrum in the mudpuppy and alligator, and the centrum in vertebrae of the cat
Neural Canal Hosts the spinal cord, is formed by the neural arch and is dorsal in positioning
Interneural (Intercalary) Plate Plates that form a continuous roof and floor around the spinal cord, in the neural arch and hemal arch with foramen for nerves to extend through
Hemal Arch Forming the ventral side of the centrum, ending in an arch - homologous to the hemal arch in the mudpuppy and alligator
Hemal Spine Extends ventral from the hemal arch and forms a point - homologous to the hemal spine in the mudpuppy
Notochord Greatly restricted in the centrum
Rostrum Anterior projection overhanging the mouth
Rostral Fenestra Holes (paired) at the posterior end of the rostrum, on the ventral side but visible from the dorsal side.
Epiphyseal Foramen Posterior to the rostrum, on the dorsal side.
Otic Capsule On the posterior end of the skull, dorsal, paired capsules. For nerves
Orbit Most anterior concave on either side of the skull, with a dorsal crest. Where the eye sits
Preorbital Process The extension anterior to each concave orbit
Supraorbital Crest The dorsal overhang of cartilage over the orbit
Postorbital Process The extension posterior to the concave of the orbit
Basal Plate Posterior plate on the ventral side of the skull, supporting the ventral side of the brain
Vagal Foramen Lateral to the occipital condyles and lateral to the centrum on the posterior wall of the skull. For the vagus nerves
Glossopharyngeal Foramen Lateral to the vagal foramen, on the very most lateral edge of the posterior wall of the skull. For glossopharyngeal nerves
Foramen Magnum The large opening on the posterior wall of the skull, dorsally positioned, where the spinal cord passes through.
Occipital Condyle Fit against the vertebrae, lateral to the centrum on the posterior wall of the skull, ventral to the foramen magnum.
Basibranchial Cartilage On ventral side of body, where all the other branchial cartilage meet.
Hypobranchial Cartilage Branches off the basibranchial cartilage, connecting the basibranchial cartilage to the other cartilage that join there. Ventral side of body.
Ceratobranchial Cartilage Ventral side of body, attached to the hypobranchial cartilage.
Epibranchial Cartilage Dorsal side of body, attached to the ceratobranchial cartilage
Pharyngobranchial Cartilage Dorsal side of body, attached to the epibranchial cartilage
Basihyal Cartilage Center cartilage of the hyoid arch, dorsal side of the body
Paired Ceratohyal Cartilage Attached to the basihyal cartilage of the hyoid on the dorsal side of the body, in same positioning as the ceratobranchial cartilage
Paired Hyomandibulae Cartilage Attached to the ceratohyal cartilage of the hyoid on the dorsal, extending to the ventral side of the body.
Meckel's Cartilage Lower jaw cartilage
Quadrate Process Articulates with the Meckel's cartilage and forms the palatoquadrate cartilage, dorsal side of the body
Orbital Process Attached to the quadrate process, forms the palatoquadrate cartilage, dorsal side of the body. Extends into the eye socket
Coracoid Bar The very ventral part of the U-shaped bar making up the pectoral girdle
Scapular Cartilage The distal part of the U-shaped bar making up the pectoral girdle, attached to the coracoid bar
Suprascapular Cartilage The most distal part of the U-shaped bar making up the pectoral girdle, attached to the scapular cartilage
Basal Pterygiophores Most medial part of the pectoral and pelvic
Radial Pterygiophores Attached to the basal pterygiophores, extending distally
Ceratotichia The most distal part of the pectoral and pelvic fin, attached to the radial pterygiophores
Puboischiadic Bar Pelvic girdle attachment in the middle
Created by: LionsandGiants