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Criminology

TermDefinition
Social Harm
Relationship of social harm and what is considered to be criminal acts
Criminal law and characteristics Between person and state and has higher standard of proof
Civil law and statues Between 2 people and only a monetary fine
Felonies 1 year or > in prison
Misdemeanors 1 year or < in jail
Differences between Felonies and Misdemeanors
Arguments that crime is a social construction
How definitions of crime vary cross-culturally
Contextual nature of crime (how context influences what we consider to be a crime)
Intent and its importance
mens reas criminal intent/ state of mind
Theories about how society defines what a crime is or not
Value-consensus key points and assumptions (Durkheim) society often has a collective consensus surrounding people's morals or values. The state is not neutral.
Collective consciousness The set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.
Pros and cons of value consensus view
Conflict Theory It proposes that laws and norms reflect the interests of powerful members of society. In other words, social order is maintained through competition and conflict, and the 'winners' - those with the most power and the greatest economic and social resources
Chambliss' discussion involving political phenomenon
Chambliss' discussion of if the state is value-neutral or not
Pros and cons of conflict Theory
Hagan's Theory and views about what gets defined as crime or not
Hagan's views about crime w/ public consensus versus crimes w/ public disconsensus
Examples of crimes with a public consensus
Examples of crimes with public disconsensus
3 main types of quantitative data about crime and criminals UCR, Self report surveys, NCVS
Official data from law enforcement agencies UCR
Victimization surveys They ask the victims to report crimes against them.
self-report surveys asks if you have committed a crime.
Index crimes willful homicide, forcible rape, robbery, burglary, aggravated assault, larceny over $50, motor vehicle theft, and arson
Non-Index Crimes what isn't reported by the UCR
Strengths and weaknesses of UCR
NCVS (who collects, where does it come from)
Strengths and weaknesses of NCVS Pros- picks up more crime, gives more info on crime Cons- say more serious than the crime is, selective memory, lying, under reporting
Problems in comparing UCR and NCVS and differences
Amount of crime reported by UCR vs NCVS
The dark figure of crime Unreported and undiscovered crime.
Examples of self-report surveys and strengths and weaknesses Pros- anonymous, gets at certain crimes others don't. Cons- lying/ under reporting. i.e national institute of drug surveys
Participant observation
Value of field research (see Cromwell's "Preface")
Different ways of locating subjects for qualitative research
Snowball sampling you start with 1 person and get more people through them
Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative methods
Advantages and disadvantages of qualitative methods
Trends in US crime rates
Trends in US incarceration rates and when did they spike
Why does US have such high rates of incarceration rates compared to other countries
Violent crimes and interpersonal violence something that causes physical or emotional harm.
assault physical or emotional harm of another NOT resulting in death
Age group and gender likely to be involved with assault
Age group and gender likely to be assaulted
Common victim/offender relationships in murders often involving strangers
different types of murder Homicide and manslaughter
manslaughter vs. homocide homicide premeditated and planned out. Manslaughter has not intent and can be involuntary(gross negligence) or voluntary(know what you are doing).
serial murder Has to have at least 3 separate incidents of murder.
4 types of serial murderers Visionary: have visions and think they need to kill, mission-oriented: mission in life is to kill certain types of people who they discriminate against, hedonistic: pleasure of killing, power-oriented: get satisfaction from exerting power over victims.
spree killings and different types 2 or more people killed in one incident. Domestic(kills family or lovers and this is very common) and Rampage(shooting a place up).
rampage killings involves both genders and is when a person chooses to attack a place such as school shootings.
rape
who are rapists and who is likely to be raped
extent of rape
Common victim/offender relationships in rape
Why is rape underreported
On average, how planned out are rapes
legal definitions of rape (old vs. new)
Types of nonphysical coercion and threats
double victimization
institutional settings in which sexual assault occurs
causes of rape on college campuses
the role of alcohol and rape on college campuses
Theories about why people commit rape (strengths and weaknesses)
Theories arguing victims precipitate or provoke rape
feminist theories about rape
Techniques of neutralization and examples
domestic violence and the types
Extent of domestic violence
Who is most likely the victim
When women leave abusive relationships (victimization process)
hate crimes has to be charged w/ another type of crime. Against specific groups of people(race, sexual orientation, etc...)
property crimes
Extent of property crime
robbery the person is present during the taking of items
burglary the person is not present during the unlawful entry
larceny taking of someone else's property without threat and somewhere outside of the home
motor vehicle theft
arson
cybercrime and identity theft
Links between property crime and formal, legal sector
fencing and fences
6 categories of receivers professional fences, part-time fences, professionals who trade services for stolen property, neighborhood hustlers, drug dealers who barter drugs for stolen property, and amateurs.
professional vs part-time fences
Motives for committing property crime
instrumental vs non-instrumental motives for committing property crime
reasons for shoplifting (Ray and hooper)
victimless crimes and examples
Arrest percentage for victimless crimes
Why police rely on undercover cops and informants to bust drug dealers
Police Corruption
Prostitution and different types
Violence against Prostitition
Rape myths
Cocaine trade
Cultivation of coca
Processing of cocaine
Transportation of cocaine
Different ways that Mexican drug traffickers smuggle cocaine
Introduction of crack in 1980s and market diversification
cocaine distribution within US
Different types of drug dealers
Money laundering
Links between legal and illegal sector of cocaine and heroin
Why do some types of dealers make more money than others
Middle-class cocaine dealers (Waldorf and Murphy)
hierarchies in methamphetamine groups
US Drug Policy
eradication Getting rid of the plant
kingpin strategy Taking out the heads of the drug organizations
interdiction trying to prevent drugs from getting into the US
arresting users and dealers Normally only street users and dealers get arrested, and they make the least amount of money
problems with US drug policy There are many ways around it and you only need one person to look away.
balloon effect when you suppress something in one area, it pops up in another area
legits young men who walked away from the gang.
homeboys majority of all adult gang members
dope fiends gang members who are addicted to cocaine.
new jacks Chose the dope game as a career.
Problems in defining who is a gang member or not
Criminal penalties of being identified as a gang member in california
Organized crime
Myths about organized crime
Theories of organized crime and strengths and weaknesses
Difficulties prosecuting organized crime
RICO and its critiques and uses
White Collar crime
Most common definition of white collar crime by criminologists
Types of white collar crime
Examples of white collar crime
How job and type of job affects opportunities to commit white-collar crime
Extent of white collar crime and harm
Deaths resulting from White collar crime
Why white collar crime is underreported
difficulties in investigating white-collar crime
Why commit white collar crime
How white collar criminals view themselves
Excuses and rationalizations of white collar crime
Created by: kerrierae4