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biology ocr b2

microorganisms and disease

give two ways that microorganism can cause the symptoms of an infectious disease? damage done ti cells by the microorganism poison produced by the microorganism
explain why bacteria can reproduce rapidly inside the human body ? because it is the ideal temperature and humidity for them to reproduce rapidly.
what is the role of the immune system? is to destroy any infectious microorganism that enters the body
give two different ways white blood cell can get rid of an infection? they can digest them or they can produce antibodies which lock onto the invading microorganism
vaccinations involve injecting dead or inactive microbes. how does this give you immunity in the future? the dead microbes don't harm the body however our body produces memory cells to help defend off the microbe if it were to come back into your body
explain why vaccines aren't risk free for everyone? you can have side effects once you have had the vaccination, some people may react worse than others
what is an antimicrobial? they are chemicals which kill microorganisms
explain why antibiotics should not prescribed to someone who has got the flu? because an antibiotic kills bacteria and flu isn't bacterial it is caused by a virus
give two ways of reducing antibiotic resistance? you should take ALL the antibiotics a doctor gives you even if you feel better before then only use the antibiotics if you really need them
give two ways that new drugs are usually tested before they are given to humans? some are tested on humans cells that are produced in a lab and they are also tested on live mammal like monkey or rats
why are new drugs tested on healthy people first , not patients with the illness they're designed to cure? because if you test it on someone who is ill, they drug may make them worse rather then better.it makes sure there are no harmful side effects
why are placebos not used in trials where patients are really ill? this is because its unfair to give the ill person the fake drug if the actual drug may help them
the heart is a double pump. explain what this means? the right pump , pushes the blood to the lungs and the left side pumps the blood to the rest of the body
how does the structure of an artery help with it function? it is thick,strong and elastic as the blood pressure will be higher
how does the structure of a vein help with its function? it has large holes through the middle which helps the blood flow quicker , it also has valves to make sure the blood travels in the right direction
you can measure your heart rate by measuring your pulse rate. True or False? true
when a blood pressure measurement is taken , what is actually being measured? it measures the pressure of blood against the wall of the artery
describe one way high blood pressure can cause heart disease? fatty deposits some times build up on damaged areas of the artery this cause the blood pressure to be even higher, this will stop the blood from going to a part of the heart causing a heart attack
what is homeostasis? its to do with balancing all the things in your body like water levels, salt levels, body temperature
name three main components of the body's automatic control systems? receptor- detects changes in the environment processing center- receives the information and organizes the response effector- produce the response to the change
name two factors that can affect the concentration of urine produced by the kidneys? the external temperature, intake of fluids
what effect does alcohol have on the production of urine? it makes the urine more dilute this causes dehydration you produce a lot more urine
how does adh work? The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland which releases ADH. This travels in the blood to your kidneys and affects the tubules so more water is reabsorbed into your blood. As a result you make a smaller volume of more concentrated urine.
Created by: jack rowlands