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Genetics Unit 1

heredity and genetics

unicellular organisms made of a single cell
multicellular organisms with many cells.
homeostasis condition where an organism maintains a relatively stable internal environment
Eukaryote an organism whose cell have a nucleus
prokaryote an organism whose cells lack a nucleus
autotroph an organism that makes own food.
heterotroph organism that depends on other organisms for its food.
organism a living thing.
stimulus a change in an organism’s surroundings.
response an action or change in behavior in reaction to a change in surroundings.
cell membrane controls what can come into and out of a cell
nucleus this organelle is the control center of the cell.
nucleolus this is where the ribosomes are made in the cell.
mitochondria this organelle converts food molecules to energy.
endoplasmic reticulum this organelle is a passageway that carries proteins from one part of the cell to another.
ribosomes this organelle produces proteins.
golgi bodies this organelle receives proteins and newly formed
materials,packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
chloroplasts this organelle captures the energy from the sun and uses it to make food.
vacuoles this organelle is the storage area of the cells.
lysosomes this organelle break down certain materials in the cell like the recycling center of the cell.
active transport the movement of materials from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration using energy.
passive transport the movement of materials through a cell’s membrane without using the cell’s energy.
exocytosis the process in which a cell membrane moves large molecules out of the cell using energy.
endocytosis the process in which a cell membrane moves large molecules into the cell using energy
diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration.
osmosis the process of moving water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration.
carbohydrate sugar and starches make up the energy
amino acids proteins are made of these small molecules.
enzyme a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in living things.
lipid the compound makes up most of the cell membrane.
genes chromosome:structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information.
genes part of the DNA that controls a trait.
alleles the different forms of a gene.
dominant an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
recessive an allele that is hidden when a different allele is present.
homozygous having two of the same allele for a trait.
heterozygous having two different alleles for a trait
phenotype an organism’s physical appearance.
genotype an organism’s genetic makeup.
codominance a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
Created by: precious30398