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Pain Management

Information for Fundamentals of Nursing Test #3

Is pain purely subjective? Yes
When cellular damage occurs by thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli, what neurotransmitters are released? Prostaglandin Bradykinin Potassium Histamine Substance P
What surrounds the pain fibers, spreading the pain message and causing an inflammatory response? Neurotransmitters
Nerve impulse travel along _________ to the spinal cord. Afferent (sensory) nerve fibers
The ________ requires health care providers to assess all patients for pain on a regular basis. Many health care institutions have added pain as the fifth vital sign. Joint Commission Pain Standard
The nature of pain _____________. -Involves physical, emotional, and cognitive components, -Results from physical and/or mental stimulus -Reduces quality of life -NOT measurable objectively -Subjective and highly individualized component
What are the two types of sensory nerve fibers? 1) Fast-myelinated A-delta fibers: send sharp, localized, distinct sensations 2) Slow, small, unmyelinated C Fibers: send poorly localized, burning, persistent pain
___________ ascend the spinal cord to the thalamus, which transmits information to higher brain centers that perceive pain. Pain impulses
These substances surround the pain fibers in the extracellular fluid, spreading the pain message and causing an _____________. Inflammatory Response
Energy of these pain stimuli is converted to _________ electrical energy
What is transduction (Phase I)? Conversion of stimulus into electrical energy
What is transmission (Phase 2)? Sending of impulse across a sensory pain nerve fiber
What is perception (Phase 3)? The patient's experience of pain
What is modulation (Phase 4)? The inhibition of pain/release of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
(True/False) No single pain center exists. True
Discuss the gate-control theory. In the CNS, pain impulses pass through when a gate is open and are blocked when a gate is closed.
A _________ response also occurs with pain reception. Protective reflex
Pain is a protective mechanism warning of tissue injury and is largely a(n): Subjective experience
To adequately assess the quality of a patient's pain, which question would be appropriate? "Tell me what your pain feels like."
The point at which a person feels pain: Pain threshold
The point at which a person feels pain: Serotonin
Causes vasodilation and edema: Substance P