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Feeding, fluid and electrolytes

Absorption Process by which drugs are transferred from the site of entry into the body to the bloodstream.
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite for food.
Anthropometric Measurements of the body and body parts.
Aspiration Misdirection of oropharyngeal secretions or gastric contents into the larynx and lower respiratory tract.
Basal metabolism Amount of energy required to carry out involuntary activities of the body at rest.
Body mass index (BMI) Ratio of height to weight.
Calorie Measure of heat, or energy; kilocalorie, commonly referred to as a calorie, defined as the amount of heat required to raise 1kg of water 1 degree Celsius.
Carbohydrate Organic compounds (commonly known as sugars and starches) that are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; the most abundant and least expensive source of calories in the diet worldwide.
Cholesterol Fat-like substance found only in animal tissues; it is important for cell membrane structure, a precursor of steroid hormones, an constituent of bile; high serum cholesterol levels are a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis.
Digestion GI system's breakdown process of food into particles small enough to pass into the cells and be used by the cells.
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing or inability to swallow.
Ketosis An abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies that is frequently associated with acidosis.
Lipid Group name for fatty substances, including fats, oils, waxes and related compounds.
Minerals Inorganic elements found in nature.
NPO Nothing by mouth. (Latin: nil per os)
Nutrient Specific biochemical substance used by the body for growth development, activity, reproduction, lactation, health maintenance, and recovery from illness or injury.
Nutrition Study of the nutrients and how they are handled by the body, as well as the impact of human behavior and environment on the process of nourishment.
Obesity Weight greater than 20% above ideal body weight.
Protein Vital component of every living cell; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Recommendations for average daily amounts of essential nutrients that healthy population groups should consume over time.
Trans Fat Partially hydrogenated liquid oil, trans fat raises serum cholesterol.
Triglycerides Predominant form of fat in food and the major storage from of fat in the body.
Vitamins Organic substances needed by the body in small amounts to help regulate body processes; are susceptible to oxidation and destruction
Waist circumference A numerical measurement of the waist, used to assess an individual's abdominal fat and establish ideal body weight.
Acid Substance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or released.
Acidosis Condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35.
Active Transport Movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes, usually against a pressure gradient and with the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Alkalosis Condition, characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45.
Anions Ion that carries a negative electric charge.
Antibody Immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen.
Antigen Foreign material capable of including a specific immune response.
Base Substance that can accept or trap a hydrogen ion; synonym for alkali.
Buffer Substance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkaline.
Capillary Filtration Passage of fluid across the wall of the capillary; results from the force of blood "pushing: against the walls of the capillaries.
Cation Ion that carries a positive electric charge.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure Pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure.
Dehydration Decreased water volume in body tissue.
Diffusion Tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established.
Edema Accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces.
Electrolytes Substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solution.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) Fluid outside the cells; includes intravascular and interstinal fluids.
Hydrostatic Pressure Force exerted by a fluid against the container wall.
Hypercalcemia Excess amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid.
Hyperchloremia Excess amount of chlorine in the extracellular fluid.
Hyperkalemia Excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid.
Hypermagenesemia Excess of magnesium in extracellular fluid.
Hypernatremia Excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid.
Hyperphospatemia Above-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus.
Hypertonic Having greater concentration that the solution with which it is being compared.
Hypervolemia Excess of plasma
Hypocalcemia Insufficient amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid.
Hypochloremia Insufficient amount of chlorine in the extracellular fluid.
Hypokalemia Insufficient potassium in extracellular fluid.
Hypomagnesemia Insufficient magnesium in extracellular fluid.
Hyponatremia Insufficient sodium in extracellular fluid.
Hypophospatemia Below-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus.
Hypotonic Having a lesser concentration than the solution with which it is being compared.
Created by: morgancoady