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Exam #2 NTR108

Energy Intake

Hunger PHYSIOLOGICAL drive to eat -stomach growling
Appetite PSYCHOLOGICAL drive to eat -socializing, stress, boredom
What does it mean to be "satisfied"? (Satiation) State in which both drives (hunger & appetite) are satisfied and there is no longer a desire to eat
Satiety Time between meals
Hypothalamus -Group of cells at the base of the brain -Participate in many regulatory functions, including hunger, fighting, fleeing, feeding, & mating
Energy Balance The relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure -Possible scenarios: - Intake = Expenditure - Intake > Expenditure - Intake < Expenditure
Energy Equivalence 1) Body Fat 1 lb = 1500 kcal 1kg = 7700 kcal 2) 10 extra kcal/d = 1lb a year
4 Components of Energy Expenditure 1) Basal Metabolic Rate -accounts for majority of NRG expenditures 2) Physical Activity 3) Thermic effect of food 4) Heat protection (minor)
Thermogenesis non-exercise activity that produces heat
Heat Just moving around (i.e. fidgeting)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) -The resting energy expenditure (REE) measured soon after waking up in the AM and at least 12 hours after your last meal -BMR is positively proportioned to body weight- higher weight, higher BMR
What are 9 factors that effect BMR 1) huge individual variation 2) gender (boys 1, girls .9) 3) lean body mass 4) age 5) height (shorter = less surface area) 6) nutritional status (starvation and dieting reduce BMR) 7) fever 8) pregnancy and lactation 9) Environmental Temperature
NEAT & It's Energy Cost -NEAT: Non-exercise activity thermogenesis -Energy Cost: -dependent on the activity, duration, body height, & training
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) -energy costs associated with digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food -accounts for 5-10% of daily expenditure -fat is metabolized more efficiantly than protein or carbohydraes -TEF in high gat foods is less -lower than 5% for obese ppl
Consequences of Energy Imbalance OBESITY (prevalent in abt 35% or 2/3rds of adults in the US) (CDC obesity maps)
9 Health Risks of Obesity -cardiovascular disease -hypertension -type 2 diabetes -cancer (breast, uterine, or prostate) -osteoarthritis -surgical complications -emotional disturbances (depression) -gallbladder disease -fatty liver disease
How is desirable/ ideal body weight determined? by reference to weight for height charts- most common: Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables: include data for men and women by height and frame size
Body Mass Index (BMI) & it's limitations Increased BMI = greater risk for obesity-related diseases. Limitations: not as useful for athletes, adolescents & children, and ppl older than 65 years old. BMI does not consider body composition & location of fat (if excessive fat)
Android Apple shape, central obesity: excess abdominal fat distributed around your organs (viscerally). More common in men than women. Increased risk for type two diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Gynecoid Pear shape: excess hip/femeral fat, distributed primarily subcutaneously, more common in women than men, fewer health risks, harder to lose, measured by waist circumpherence
Which measurements for men and women puts them at higher risk for abdominal obesity? Men: waist circumpherence > 40 inches Women: WC > 35
Ideal Percent Body fat US Male: 15-20% US Female: 20-25%
What percent body fat in men and women puts them at higher risk for obesity related disease? Males: >25% BF Females: >30% BF
Skinfold Measurements direct measure of % body fat. limitations: good technique needed, primarily measures subcutaneous (between skin and viscera), & it's hard to measure viscera fat
Subcutaneous Between skin & viscera
Underwater Weighing (Hydrostatic) the more fat tissue, the less the individual will weigh when submerged. % body fat is calculated by relationships b/w body weight, density, and volume. Limitations: Special facilities needed, children and elderly
Bioelectric Impendance Based on that fat impedes on the flow of electricity. A low level current is passed thru the body.% BF is proportional to the body's resistance to the flow of current. Limitations: Measures total body water, only estimates muscle and fat. Must be hydrated
Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Uses low level x-rays to differentiate among bone tissue, lean tissue, and fat tissue. Limitations include high cost and time (it takes 30 mins to complete)
BOD POD (Air Displacement) Measures hm air your body displaces within the chamber. %BF is calculated based on relationships b/w body weight, densit,y and volume.
Created by: jessberis