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Ch. 2 med terms

TermDefinition
anatomic position standing up straight so that the body is erect & facing forward holding the arms at the sides with hands turned so that the palms face toward the front
sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into UNEQUAL left & right portions
midsagittal plane (midline) is the sagittal plane that divides the body into EQUAL left & right portions
frontal plane ( coronal plane) is a vertical plane that divides the body into ANTERIOR (front) & POSTRIOR (back) portions
transverse plane is a horizontal plane that divides the body into SUPERIOR (upper) & INFERIOR (lower) portions
ventral refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body
*DORSAL refers to the back of the organ or body
anterior situated in the front
posterior situated in the back
superior uppermost, above, or towards the head
inferior lowermost, below, or towards the feet
cephalic towards the head
caudal towards the lower part of the body
proximal situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
distal situated farthest from the midline or beginning of the body structure
medial the direction towards or near the midline
lateral the direction towards, or nearer, the side of the body, away from the midline
dorsal cavity located along the back of the body & head, contains organs of the nervous system
cranial cavity located within the skull, surrounds & protects the brain
spinal cavity located within the spinal column, surrounds & protects the spinal cord
ventral cavity located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that sustain homeostasis
right & left hypochondriac region are covered by the lower ribs
RUQ right upper quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
RLQ right lower quadrant
LLQ left lower quadrant
aplasia is the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
hypoplasia is the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
anaplasia is a change in the structure of cells & in their orientation to each other
hyperplasia is the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
exocrine glands secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, such as sweat glands
*ENDOCRINE GLADS produce hormones, do not have ducts these hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream, & are then transported to organs & structures throughout the body
adenitis is the inflammation of a gland
adenoma is a benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue
adenomalacia is the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosis is any disease or condition of a gland
*ADENOSCLEROSIS is the abnormal hardening of a gland
*ADENECTOMY is the surgical removal of a gland
*ETIOLOGY is the study of the causes of diseases
*PATHOGEN is a disease-producing microorganism such as a virus
bloodborne transmission the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood. example:HIV, hepatitis B & most STDs
airborne transmission occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze examples: tuberculosis, flu, colds & measles
endemic refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group or area example: the common cold
*EPIDEMIC is a sudden & wide spread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area example: a sudden widespread outbreak of measles
*SKELETAL system supports & shapes the body. Protects the internal organs. Forms some blood cells & stores minerals
pandemic refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
nosocomial infection is a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting example: MRSA
atresia describes the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
general practitioner family practice, provides ongoing care for patients of all ages
geriatrician is a physician who specializes in the care of older people
Created by: lachnietj