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Stack #201053

Spinal cord Injuries quiz 2

QuestionAnswer
Main causes of spinal cord injuries (SCI) MVA, falls, violence, sport accidents
Most common sites for sci: Between the lower __ area and the upper ___ segment cervical, thoracic
between the lower ____ area and the upper ___ segment thoracic; lumber
between the lower ___ segment and the ___ lumbar, sacrum
Mechanisms of SCI Injuries to the vertbral column: hyperflexion, hyperextension, compression injuries
Mechanisms of SCI Injuries of the cord: contusion laceration, compression
Clinical manifestations Spinal shock
spinal shock is a ___ depression of both somatic and autonmic reflexes below the ____ of injury immediately following sci temporary; level
How long does it usually last for 2 weeks to 2 months
S/S during spinal shock: Flaccid muscle tone ___ the lesion below
.... Areflexia ____ ____ below the lesion
.... Loss of ___ below the lesion sensation
.... Atonic bowel and bladder if the injury is above S2, 3, 4
Hypotension and bradycardia if sci is above T6
Skin below the injury pink dry and warm
S/S after spinal shock ____ muscle tone below lesion rigid
____ below lesion hyperreflexia
loss of ___ below lesion sensation
_____ bowel and bladder if injury is above __ _ _ spastic s2, 3, 4
autonomic hyper/dysreflexia if sci above t6
skin pale cold clammy below injury
Autonomic hyper/dyreflexia occurs in pt with SCI above T6
Autonomic hyper/dyreflexia is an acute episode of exaggerated ___ response uncontrolled by the higer ____ in the ____ sympathetic, centers, brain
Autonomic hyper/dyreflexia occurs after the period of spinal shock
Autonomic hyper/dyreflexia and is often triggered by stimuli such as fecal impaction or bladder distention
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 1--> ____ receptors are stimulated below the lesion sensory
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 2--> stimulate sympathetic ___ ___ lesion outflow below
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 3--> ____ below level of injury vasospasm
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 4---> ___ BP Increased
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 5--> produced baroreflex mediated ___ response Vagal
Mechanism of autonomic hyperreflexia: 6--> Bradycardia
Degree of injury: Complete or incomplete
total loss of sensory and motor function below level of injury complete
incomplete or partial mixed loss of voluntary motor function and sensations and leaves some tracts intact
Level of injury Cervical thoracic or lumbar
The degree of sensory and motor loss varies depending on the lesion and reflexes the specific ___ ___ damaged and those spared nerve tract
What are associated with incomplete lesions 6 syndromes
We need to know what 4 (ABCP) Anterior cord syndrome Brown sequard syndrom central cord syndrome Posterior cord syndrome
Anterior cord syndrome is caused by damage to the anterior spinal artery
this results in compromised blood flow to the anterior spinal cord
It is typically a result from acute compression of the anterior spinal cord often what type of injury flexion injury
Manifestations include motor paralysis and loss of pain and temp sensation below the level of injury
What syndrome is the result of damage to one half of the spinal cord brown-sequard
manifestation include loss of motor function and position and vibration sense as well as vasomotor paralysis on the same side of the lesion
What happens to the opposite side loss of pain temp sensation below level of lesion
What is central cord syndrome damage to the center of the spinal cord
where and who does it occur in most commonly cervical cord region; older adults
where are motor and sensory loss located at upper and lower extremities, but upper extremities are affected more
The degree of sensory and motor loss varies depending on the lesion and reflexes the specific ___ ___ damaged and those spared nerve tract
What are associated with incomplete lesions 6 syndromes
We need to know what 4 (ABCP) Anterior cord syndrome Brown sequard syndrom central cord syndrome Posterior cord syndrome
Anterior cord syndrome is caused by damage to the anterior spinal artery
this results in compromised blood flow to the anterior spinal cord
It is typically a result from acute compression of the anterior spinal cord often what type of injury flexion injury
Manifestations include motor paralysis and loss of pain and temp sensation below the level of injury
What syndrome is the result of damage to one half of the spinal cord brown-sequard
manifestation include loss of motor function and position and vibration sense as well as vasomotor paralysis on the same side of the lesion
What happens to the opposite side loss of pain temp sensation below level of lesion
What is central cord syndrome damage to the center of the spinal cord
where and who does it occur in most commonly cervical cord region; older adults
where are motor and sensory loss located at upper and lower extremities, but upper extremities are affected more
Posterior cord syndrome results from compression or damage to the posterior spinal artery
It is a very rare condition but results in loss of proprioception
Manifestations of spinal cord injury are related to the: level and degree of injury.
Cervical Level altered respiratory function; teraplegia; ANS dysfunction; altered bowel bladder and sexual function
Respiratory muscle control: Diaphragm C3-5
Respiratory muscle control: Scapula C5,6
Respiratory muscle control: Intercostals T1-11
Respiratory muscle control: abdominal T7-12
Respiratory complications closely correspond to the level of the injury.
Cervical injury above the level of C4 presents special problems because of the total loss of respiratory muscle function.
Any cord injury above the level of T6 greatly decreases the influence of the sympathetic nervous system
Complications of SCI loss of sensation paralysis Spinal shock autonomic hyperreflexia skin breakdown thromboemboli altered bowel, bladder, sexual dysfunction altered body temp regulation
Assessment neuro exam x-ray ct mri myelography
Medical management 1 Immediate immobilization of spine
2 decompression laminectomy
3 corticosteriods
4 management of spinal shock
5 management of autonomic hyperreflexia
6 rehab program
Created by: jsande02