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8 Sci Ch 1-3 Test 3

aftershock A smaller earthquake that follows a more powerful earthquake in the same area
aluminum Most common metal on Earth
amorphous rocks rock without form; when magma cools very rapidly and no crystals form; have a smooth, glasslike texture
artesian well is a well in which water flows to the surface naturally because it is under pressure
atom basic unit of matter
basalt the commonest type of solidified lava
basic substance with a pH of 10
bauxite mineral used to make aluminum
bedrock the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
brass an alloy of copper and zinc
bullion gold and silver in the form of bars
circum-Pacific belt narrow belt bordering the Pacific ocean along which about 80% of the world's earthquakes occur
coal sedimentary rock formed from decayed plant material; the world's most abundant fossil fuel
concretions hard, round structures that form when minerals settle out of water and crystallize around a sand grain or other mineral fragment
conglomerate rock rounded pebbles embedded in hardened sand or clay
crystal faces smooth, flat surfaces with regular geometric outlines
crystals particles arranged in repeating geometric patterns
decomposition the process of rotting, breaking down, or disintegration
diamond hardest substance
elastic rebound tendency for deformed rock along a fault to spring back to its original shape after an earthquake
element a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
emerald a green transparent form of beryl
epicenter the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point
evaporites sedimentary rocks formed from minerals left after water evaporates
experimental group the group exposed to the factor being tested
extinct volcano A volcano that has not erupted for thousands of years and probably will not erupt again.
focus The location within earth along a fault at which the first motion of an earthquake occurs
fold bending or buckling of rocks under great pressure
formulate the hypothesis 3rd step of the scientific method
granite a usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
humus material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
igneous rock rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
law a therory that has never been proven false
limestone the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock
loam a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials
longwall type of mining that used a rotating drum that travels down a long track while grinding coal
luster The way in which a mineral reflects light
metamorphism changing of one type of rock to another by heat,pressure, and chemical processes
mineralogy the branch of geology that studies minerals: their structure and properties and the ways of distinguishing them
minerals Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth.
ore a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
pedology the study of soil
pyroclast A rock fragment ejected into the air by a volcanic eruption
quartz most common mineral in the earth's crust
metamorphic rock A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
native element a mineral composed of only one element
obsidian An igneous rock consisting of a solid mass of volcanic glass.
overburdening upper layers of the ground left by strip mining
P waves travels fastest, compressional waves, can travel through solids, liquids and gasses
pahoehoe a hot, fast moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils
phosphorescence the process of emitting light for a short time after receiving energy from another source
phosphorus nutrient that "firms up" a plant's fruit
platinum a heavy precious metallic element more valuable than silver or gold
precious stones the rarest, most durable and beautiful gems
richter scale the scale used to measure the strength or magnitude of an earthquake (uses numbers from 1-10)
Ring of Fire A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
S waves a seismic wave that shakes particles perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling
sedimentary rock A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
seismograph an instrument that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake
shale Most common sedimentary rock
silicates most common mineral group
solid state of matter of the earth's core
specific gravity the density of a substance relative to the density of water
stainless steel a metal alloy of steel, chromium, and sometimes nickel; noted for its ability to resist rust
steel an alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon
stratum one layer of sedimentary rock.
streak test the color of powder left when a mineral is rubbed against a hard, rough surface
tremor a small earthquake
tsunamis A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
weight the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity
Created by: Mrs_CC