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Microb/Immuno 1

First Aid Q&A: Microbiology and Immunology 1

QuestionAnswer
This drug blocks guanine synthesis and is used to treat RSV. Ribavirin
Used for multidrug resistant gram-positive organisms such as S. aureus and C. difficile. Vancomycin
43 yro man from Mexico presents with pulmonary congestion, cardiomegaly, and megacolon. Physician can only offer symptomatic treatment. What is the insect that transmitted this illness? Reduviid bug; T. Cruzi "Chaga's disease" (treated with Nifurtimox)
This organism is associated with sandfly bite. Leishmania donovani
40 yro man returns from a trip to africa complaining of repeatedly falling asleep, headaches, and dizziness. What insect bit him? Tsetse fly; Trypanosoma brucei "African sleeping sickness" (treated with Sumarin)
Blood and sputum cultures show gram-negative rod that ferments lactose. Acute inflammatory infiltrates from bronchioles into adjacent alveoli. Kliebsella
This infection evolves through 4 stages: congestion, red hepatization, gray hepatization, and resolution. S. pneumonia
Pneumonia characterized by diffuse patchy inflammation localized to interstitial areas at alveolar walls. Mycoplasma and viruses
This disease spread by human body louse presents as fevers that last about 5 days, remit, and return about a week later. What is the organism to blame? Borrelia recurrentis; relapsing fever
Adjuvants act on these cells to stimulate greater activation in vaccines. Antigen presenting cells; provide costimulatory capacity
37 yro female with HIV presents with hemiparesis, visual field deficits, and cognitive impairment. MRI shows multiple nonenhancing T2-hyperintense lesions of the brain. Diagnosis? PML; JCV
HIV patient with cognitive defects, MRI shows enhancing periventricular white mater lesions in cortical and subependymal regions. Diagnosis? CMV
HIV patient presents with insidious onset of memory loss, gait disorder, and spasticity. Most common CNS complication of HIV-1. HIV encephalopathy
HIV patient presents with cognitive disfunction, MRI shows enhanced lesions located at corticomedullary junction surrounded by edema. Diagnosis? toxoplasma infection
23 year old man presents with bacterial infection and history of recurrent infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal). Blood ;shows low T and B lymphocytes. Diagnosis? Severe combined immunodeficiency
Recurrent streptococcal and staphylococcal infections due to a defect in lysosomal emptying of phagocytic cells due to microtubular dysfunction. May present with partial albinism. Chediak-Higashi disease
Failure of helpter T-cells to produce IFN-gamma, resulting in a decrease in phagocytic activation. Job syndrome
Failure of the body to mount an IgM response to bacteria often presenting as recurrent pyogenic infections, eczema, and thrombocytopenia. IgA and IgE may be elevated. Wiskott-Aldrich
16 yro sexually active male with rash on trunk and genitals consisting of multiple umbilicated nodules, which are dome-shaped, waxy, and painless. Diagnosis? Molluscum contagiosum; Poxvirus
Bluish white spots on oral mucosa later accompanied by maculopapular rash. Diagnosis? Measles virus
Vesicular rash with macules, papules, and pustules over the head and trunk. VZV
Cytokine that is responsible for dampening the immune response after it is no longer needed. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Cytokine released by helper T cells to stimulate macrophages. INF-gamma
What are the roles of the first five interleukins? "Hot T-BONE stEAk", IL1-fever (endogenous pyogen; IL2- T cell stimulant; IL3-bone marrow stimulant; IL4- stimulates IgE production; IL5- stimulates IgA production
This cytokine activates NK and Th1 cells. IL12
Patient presents with fatigue, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. Linear, double stranded DNA with an envelope. EBV
Linear, double stranded DNA without an envelope. Adenovirus
Double stranded RNA virus. Reovirus
Partially circular, double stranded DNA with an envelope. Viral family? Hepadnaviridae
Segmented, single stranded RNA with negative polarity and an envelope.Virus family? Orthomyxoviridae
Eosinophilic globule found in the liver of those suffering from Yellow fever. Councilman bodies
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies found in the cytoplasm of nerve cells of those suffering from Rabies. Negri bodies
Malaria like syndrome which on microscopic examination of RBC's shows no blood cell pigment, just the maltese cross-appearing parasite. Diagnosis and treatment? Babesia, treated with Quinidine
Patient presents with nausea, vomiting, and irrational behavior after a camping trip. Lab testing reveals meningoencephalitis with amebas in CSF. Dr. tells patient there is no treatment for his infection and patient dies 6 days later. N. fowleri
Patient has enlarged and flaccid heart on chest X-ray. flagellated trypomastigoes in the blood and nonmotile amastigotes in tissue. Diagnosis and treatment? T. cruzi, nifurtimox
Burkitt's lymphoma translocation. t(8;14)
Tumor suppressor genes inactivated by HPV? p53 and Rb
What is the role of the membrane attack complex? complement mediated insertion of tube like structure into bacterial membrane allowing entry of ions and small molecules into the cell leading to lysis.
Complement protein associated with opsonization? C3b
Complement proteins associated with anaphylaxis? C3a and C5a
Defect in DNA repair enzyme associated with IgA deficiency, cerebellar problems, and skin manifestations. Ataxia-telangiectasia
Defect in tyrosine kinase gene associated with low levels of all classes of immunoglobulins. Patients may appear to have no tonsils without history of tonsillectomy. Bruton's aggamaglobulinemia
Why are polysaccharide components of bacterial capsules conjugated to a protein carrier in vaccines? Because, while B cells are capable of recognizing polysaccharide antigens, they require stimulation from T helper cells which only recognize proteins.
Patient presents with multiple coughs in a single breath followed by a deep inspiration. What is the organism responsible? Whooping cough; Bordetella pertussis
A lack of NADPH oxidase activity results in defective neutrophil phagocytosis resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. Chronic granulomatous disease
Defect in CD40 ligand on CD4 T-helper cells resulting in an inability to class switch IgM to other isotypes (elevated IgM, low levels all others). Hyper-IgM syndrome
Patient suffering from selective immunoglobulin deficiency with recurrent sinus and lung infections most likely is deficient in what immunoglobulin? IgA
Infection precipitating ascending symmetric muscle weakness that begins after an episode of fever and diarrhea. What is the syndrome? Guillain-Barre; can be caused by C. jejuni, H. influenzae, CMV, EBV, VZV, and M. pneumoniae
Spherules at 37 degrees C, branched at hyphae at 25 degrees C. Coccidoides
Broad based budding yeast at 37 degrees C, hyphae at 25 degrees C. Blastomyces
Patient presents with a well=demarcated skin lesion with a black base following a tick bite. Organism responsible? Francisella tularensis
Patient presents with recurrent staph infections, eczema, and high levels of IgE. Diagnosis? Job syndrome
Failure of development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches are common in this syndrome leading to immune deficiency. DiGeorge syndrome; thymic aplasia and failure of development of parathyroid lead to immune deficiency and hypocalcemia
RUQ pain, fever and jaundice. What do you think? Charcot's triad; cholangitis
Created by: rahjohnson