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Psychology Exam #2

Brain

TermDefinition
Parietal lobes Area of the cortex that include the sites in which body sensations register.
Corpus callosum Thick band of axon fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres.
Occipital lobe Portion of the cerebral cortex in which vision registers in the brain.
Frontal lobes Areas of the cortex associated with movement,the sense of self, and higher mental functions.
Left hemisphere Language, speech, writing (small details)
Right hemisphere Spatial skills, visualization, pattern recognition (overall patterns)
Hindbrain structure Contains the medulla, cerebellum, and reticular formation.
Medulla The structure that connects the brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life functions.
Reticular formation (RF) A network within the medulla and brainstem; associated with attention, alertness, and some reflexes.
Limbic system A system in the forebrain that is closely linked with emotional response.
Hippocampus A part of the limbic system associated with strong memories. (Think of a hippo being on campus)
Pituitary gland The master gland at the base of the brain whose hormones influence other endocrine glands.
Adrenal glands Endocrine glands that arose the body, regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress, and affect sexual functioning.
Handedness A preference for the right or left hand in most activities
Dominant hemisphere A term usually applied to the side of a person's brain that produces language.
Lateralization Differences between the two sides of the body; especially, differences in the abilities of the brain hemispheres.
Dominant gene A gene whose influence will be expressed each time the gene is present.
Recessive gene A gene whose influence will be expressed only when it is paired with a second recessive gene.
Punnet squares
Nature vs. Nurture Heredity-genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children ("our nature") Environment-all external conditions that affect a person ("our nurture")
Teratogens Anything capable of altering fetal development in nonheritable ways that cause birth defects. (radiation, leads, pesticides, etc.)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A molecular structure that contains coded genetic information.
Chromosomes Thread-like colored bodies in the nucleus of each cell that are made up of DNA.
Polygenetic characteristics Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination.
Affectional needs Emotional needs for love and attention
Social smiles Smiling elicited by social stimuli, such as seeing a parent's face.
Attachment styles Secure-stable and positive emotional bond. Avoidant-anxious emotional bond marked by a tendency to avoid reunion with a parent or caregiver. Ambivalent-anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with a parent and some resistance to reunite.
Parenting styles Authoritarian-enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority. Overly permissive-give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or do not require child to take responsibility. Authoritative-firm and consistent guidance with love/affection.
Ethnic differences
Parentese A pattern of speech used when talking to infants, marked by a higher-pitched voice; short, simple sentences; repetition, slower speech; and exaggerated voice infections.
Piaget's stages Sensorimotor(0-2)sensory input and motor rspns become coordinated Preoperational(2-7)begin to use language and think symbolically Concrete operational(7-11)Concepts of time, space, volume, numbers Formal operational(11-up)abstract, theoretical, hypothe
Accomodation vs. Assimilation Modification of existing mental patterns to fit new demands (mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information) vs. Application of existing mental patterns to new situations (new situation assimilated to existing mental schemes)
Transformation Mental ability to change the shape or form of a substance (such as clay or water) and perceive it as the volume staying the same.
Egocentric thought Thought that is self-centered and fails to consider the viewpoints of others.
Scaffolding Process of adjusting instruction so that it is responsive to a beginner's behavior and supports the beginner's efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill.
Preconventional moral development Moral thinking based on the consequences of one's choices or actions (punishment, or reward, or a exchange of favors)
Conventional moral development Moral thinking based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules or values.
Postconventional moral development Moral thinking based on carefully examined and self-chosen moral principles.
Elizabeth Kubler Ross Thanatologist-specialist who studies emotional and behavioral reactions to death and dying.
Lawrence Kohlberg Held that we hold moral values through thinking and reasoning.
Reactions to impending death Denial and Isolation Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Memory Active mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information.
Sensory memory The first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
Maintenance rehearsal Silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory.
Working memory Another name for short-term memory, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving.
Serial position effect The tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list.
Explicit vs. implicit memories Memory that a person is aware of having; consciously retrieved. vs. Memory that a person does know exists; retrieved unconsciously.
Encoding failure Failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory.
Memory decay Fading or weakening of memories
Forgetting Could be from disuse
Cue dependent Stimuli associated memory-a cue is needed to retrieve the memory
State dependent learning Memory influenced by one's physical state at the time of learning and at the time or retrieval. Improved memory occurs when the two states match.
Repression vs, Supression Unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness. vs. Conscious effort to put something out of mind or keep it from awareness.
Flashbulb memory An especially vivid memory created at a time of high emotion.
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic nervous systems Branch of ANS that arouses the body vs. Branch of ANS that quiets the body
Myelin sheath Fatty layer coating some axons
Created by: zachary_morlock