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What is dominant in angiosperms? Sporophyte
Where are they found? Many environments
How large can they be? 1mm-100m
How do most get food? Autotrophic, some are parasites
Angiosperm in Greek means Vessel seed
True parasite Doder
Hemiparasitic Mistletoe
Epiphytes Air plants. Attaches to substrate such as another plant or a side of a building
Examples of an epiphyte Spanish moss, cacti, ferns
What do we use angiosperms for? Food, medicine, makeup, cotton, lumber
Wheat are angiosperms famous for? Flowers
What are flowers? Exclusive reproductive organs
What emsures pollination? Color, texture, and nectar
How often do they shed leaves? Deciduous, shed leaves in winter or during a drought
Herbaceous Little to mnk woody tissue
Example of herbaceous Peas
Example of woody Apple tree
Annuals Life cycle in one seasom
Annual example Zinnia
Biennials Life is completed in two growing seasons
Biennials example Parsley
Perennials Life is longer than two seasons
Perennial example Tulips
Seed Ripened ovule of a plant that contains an embryo houdsed in a protective coat and is nourished by stored food
Where is fruit from? Plant ovary
What do fruits do? House, protect, nourish, and aid in seed dissemination
Vegetables Edible part derived from petioles, leaves, roots, stumps, or flowers
Examples of specific pollinators Bees, hummingbirds, bats
Ovules Encased within integumemt supplied by the parent plant
Diploid tissue around ovule Integument
Double fertilization Egg and double nutritive endosperm form
Tracheids and xylem Possesses vessels that transports water
Dicots Seed contains two cotyledons
Cotyledons Seed leaf weigh nutrients to nourish embryo.
Monicotyledons Contains a single cotyledon
What is the first evident leaf after germination? Cotyledon
Magnoliophyta Flowering plants
Anthophyta Flowering plants
What are the two classes? Dicotyledons and monocotyledons
Dicotyledones Magnoliopsida
Monocotyledons Liliopsida
What do new schemes do? Divides angiosperms into basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots
Paleodicots Basal dicots
Basal dicots Wsyee lilies, avocado, and magnolias
What do monocotes and basal dicots have in common? Monosulcste pollen
Monosulcate pollen A linear thin, furrow-like groove (sulcas) on the surface of the grain and one pore
Eucotyledons True dicots. Has tricolpate pollen
Tricolpate pollen Has three long grooved apertures (pores) on the surface
Eudicot examples Roses, oak trees, sunflowers, cabbage
Monocots evolved from Dicots
Monocot examples Cattails, corn, orchids, palms, and bananas
4 basal dicots Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales
Nymphaeales Aquatic plants with floating leaves. Water Lillies and lotus
Piperales Shrubs, herbs, small trees, black pepper, vine pepper, and wild ginger
Laurales Once placed with Magnolias. Sassafras, cinnamon, and avacado
Magnoliales Best known. Magnolia, sweet bay, nutmeg, tulip trees
Many dicots are now considered Eudicots
Consists of 1\4 of all living angiosperms Monocots
Monocots diverged from Basal dicots 90 million years ago
Monocots play a role in Floral and horticultural industries
Inflorescence Cluster of flowers
Largest unnranched inflorescence Corpse flower
Who found the corpse flower Odoardo Beccari
Largest bramnched inflorescence Talipot palm
Largest flower Corpse flower
Smallest flower A type of duckweed
Peduncle/pedicels Specialized stalk(s)
Flowers begin from a Penduncle or pedicels
The penduncle forms the Receptacle
Receptacle Swollen region tjhsat contains other floral parts in whorls
Outermost whorl Composed of leaf like green sepals
Sepals form Calyx
Calyx Protects flower while it develops in the bud
Petals form The corolla
Calyx and corolla make up The perianth
Male portion of flowers Stamen
Stamen Comsists of filament (stalk) and the saclike anther
Anther Produces pollen
Stamens make up Androecium
How do anthers release pollen.? Splitting open (daisy) or released from pores on anther tip (azaleas)
Female portion Pistil (carpel) which has sticky kmon called xtig!a at the top of a style which leads to the ovary
Hypogynous Superior, calyx and corolla attached to receptacle at base of ovary
Epigynous Inferior, calyx and corolla at top of ovary
Perigynous Semi-inferior, calyx and corolla found on a cup shapesd structure surrounding the receptacle
Hypogynous example Grape, honeysuckle, quince
Epigynous example Blueberry, watermelon, pear
Perigynous example Crape myrtle,cherry, Pyracantha
Ovary forms Fruit
1+ carpels Main portion of ovary
Carpel (s) collectively known as Gynoecium
Number of carpels Number of divisions in the stigma (each section of a tomato)
Complete flowers Possess sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
Incomplete flowers Lack one or more sepals, petals, stamens, or pistils
Perfect flower Both sexes (stamen and pistil)
Imperfect flower One sex
Staminate Only stamens (male)
Pistillate Only pistils (female)
Actinomorphic Radially symmetrical. All petals are the same size
Actinomorphic example Azaeleas, buttercups, roses
Zygomorphic Bilaterally symmetrical. Two or more petal shapes
Zygomorphic example Orchid, foxglove, snapdragon
Catkins (4 facts) 1)Dutch for kitten 2)drooping slim inflorescence 3)lack petals or have petals that look like a kitten's tail 4)unisex flowers arranged around stem
Grasses 1)Flowers are inflorescence 2)basal sheath encompasses the culm down to the node
culm Grass stem
Node Point of origin
Grass internodes Hallow
Leaf blade grows Away from culm
Ligule Membranous scale found at junction of the basal sheath and leaf blade
Auricles Tiny projections near the has of the leaf blade
Spikelet Extension of penduncle, conmsisting of many small florets
Floret External glume
Within the floret One pistil, three stamens, the ovary , and the scale-like lodicule
Created by: maggiehinkston