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Biology Midterm

Biology Midterm Review

The process of a forest regrowing after a forest fire is known as what? ecological succession (secondary succession)
What type of symbiosis is happening when a bee collects nectar from a flower, and in turn the flower gets pollinated? mutualism
What type of symbiosis is happening when a tapeworm feeds off of a dog? parasitism
What is the carrying capacity of a population? The maximum number of organisms that an environment can support (based on resource availability)
What is the order of ecological organization, from smallest to largest? Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
What is homeostasis? The state of being in balance in a body to maintain a stable internal environment; usually associated with temperature (sweating when hot, shivering when cold)
What is the independent variable for an experiment? The thing being tested in an experiment; what you are controlling
What is the dependent variable for an experiment? The thing being measured in an experiment; what you are measuring
What is thigmotropism? Plant tropism in response to touch
What is hydrotropism? Plant tropism in response to water
What is phototropism? Plant tropism in response to light
What is gravitropism? Plant tropism in response to gravity
What is a positive tropism? Moving towards the stimulus
What is a negative tropism? Moving away from the stimulus
What is competitive exclusion? Concept where two species that occupy the same niche (do the same job, eat the same food, live in the same are) cannot survive for extended periods of time; one species out-competes the other so the losing species either leaves or dies out
What does "organic" mean? Contains carbon
What macromolecule is made out of simple sugars? Carbohydrates
What macromolecule is the main source of energy for living organisms? Carbohydrates
What is an enzyme? A specialized proteins that catalyzes (speeds up) chemical reactions by lowering activation energy
What is the active site of an enzyme? Place where the substrate (chemical an enzyme reacts with) binds on the enzyme
What makes an enzyme specific for the substrate it reacts with? Shape (lock and key)
Does an object have to breathe oxygen in order to be considered alive? No! Some organisms survive by only doing fermentation to get energy (which doesn't required oxygen) while others use different gases
What is the smallest unit of a living thing (that is still considered to be alive)? Cell
Does an object have to eat to be considered living? No! Plants make their own food instead of 'eating'
Which scientist observed cork under a microscope and named what he saw cells? Robert Hooke
What kind of cell does not have a nucleus? Prokaryote
Most prokaryotes are what type of organism Bacteria
What cell part screens (selects) what is able to enter and leave the cell? Cell membrane
What cell part, found in all cells, builds proteins for use in the cell and body? Ribosome
What is the large, open compartment found in plant cells that is used for storage called? vacuole
Which cell organelle has the job or function of helping to break down and digest old cell parts and foreign materials (such as bacteria)? Lysosome
Which cell organelle is involved in gathering food to make energy? choroplast
Which cell organelle is involved in converting food into energy? mitochondria
What cell organelle is most closely associated with energy conversion for a cell? mitochondria
What are the 3 purposes of mitosis? growth, repair, replacement
How many cells are made from mitosis? two
What are the cells like, compared to the parent cell, at the end of mitosis (same or different)? Same
What term means having two copies of chromosomes? Diploid
What term means having one copy of a chromosome? Haploid
How many cells are made from meiosis? four
What cell mitotic phase has the daughter cells forming a new nucleus? telophase
What process is happening when parts of two homologous chromosomes are switched during prophase I? crossing over
What type of cells do meiosis? gametes
What is another name for normal body cells? somatic cells
What is the name of the structure that holds sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosome called? centromere
What does hydrophilic mean? water-loving
What kind of cell transport requires energy? (active or passive) active transport
What kind of cell transport is diffusion? (active or passive) passive transport
What is the form of energy used by cells for cell processes? ATP
What kind of cell transport is endocytosis/exocytosis? (active or passive) Active transport
What kind of cell transport is osmosis? (active or passive) passive transport
What kind of cell transport moves materials (solute) from areas of high to low concentration? diffusion
Osmosis and diffusion will move materials until what point or state is reached (what is it called)? equilibrium
What is a solution with a lot of solute in it called? hypertonic
What is a solution with a small amount of solute called? hypotonic
Plants appear green because chlorophyll does what to green light? reflects
What three things do plants need to do photosynthesis? water, carbon dioxide, light
What molecule must be present to get the most energy out of glucose in cell respiration? oxygen
What cell process happens in mitochondria? cell respiration
What happens when a phosphate is added to an ADP molecule? Energy is stored in the bond
What type of organisms are found in the first trophic level of an energy pyramid? plants
Organisms that make their own food are known as what? autotrophs
Organisms that must eat (consume) food for energy are known as what? heterotrophs
What is the name of the process in which toxins can build up in organisms via the food chain? biomagnification
What human activity has the biggest effect on increasing the greenhouse effect on Earth? burning fossil fuels
How many variables should you test in an experiment, at the same time? one
What is the simplest level of organization to the most complex? cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What level of ecological organization includes both biotic and abiotic factors? ecosystem
Created by: RYorkBio