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Chapter 3

Cell Structure and Function

TermDefinition
cell theory the major principles of this are: 1) all organisms are made of cells, 2) all existing cells are produced by other living cells, and 3) the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm a jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks
organelle structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell
prokaryotic cell cells that do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
eukaryotic cell cells that do have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
cytoskeleton a network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the needs of a cell
nucleus the storehouse for most of the genetic information (or DNA) in a cell
endoplasmic reticulum an interconnected network of then folded membranes
ribosome tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicle small membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place within the cell
mitochondrion the powerhouse of the cell; supplies energy to the cell
vacuole a fluid-filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by the cell
lysosome membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes
centriole cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle
cell wall a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell (only present in plant cells)
chloroplast organelles that carry out photosynthesis
cell membrane the plasma membrane that forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell
phospholipid a molecule composed of three basic part: a charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains
fluid mosaic model a model that describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability the allowance of some but not all materials to cross
receptor a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
passive transport the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
concentration gradient the difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis the process in which water molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
isotonic a type of solution that has the same concentration of dissolved particles as the cell
hypertonic a type of solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles than a cell
hypotonic a type of solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles than a cell
facilitated diffusion the diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
active transport transport that drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
endocytosis the process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
phagocytosis a type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles
exocytosis the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
Created by: tuohybio1415
 

 



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